URBAN SOCIOLOGY (SA 523)

1999/00

Introductory Notes

Course coverage

The course discusses the main approaches which have developed in urban sociology, and introduces work on some of the major themes.  The approaches examined are human ecology, urban ways of life, community studies and the Weberian, Marxian and feminist approaches.  The themes are the neighbourhood, urban imagery and symbolism, residential differentiation and gentrification, urban protest, and comparative urbanism (Hungary, China and Japan).

Course aims

The course will introduce you to the main types of work carried out within urban sociology.

Textbooks

There are no books which cover all the topics in the course, but I would recommend purchase of either of the following books which cover many of the first term topics:

P. Saunders, Social Theory and the Urban Question, Hutchinson, 1986.

M. Savage and A. Warde, Urban Sociology, Capitalism and Modernity, Macmillan, 1993.

Course organization

The course will consist of weekly lectures and seminars.   The seminars will usually cover the topic of the previous week's lecture to allow you time to read on it.

Assessment method

You can choose between two forms of assessment.

Option A: Four term-time essays, and a three-hour end of year examination. The essays count 20% and the exam 80% towards your final mark.

Option B: Two term-time essays, an 8000-word extended essay, and a three-hour end of year examination. In this case the final mark is made up as follows: term-time essays 10%, extended essay 50%, examination 40%.

Your choice of option must be notified on the form attached which should be handed in to the Secretarial Office, Room A3.10 Darwin.  The deadline for this is 12 noon, Friday 26 November.

Further details regarding the format of the extended essay will be circulated in the Lent Term.  The deadline for submission of the extended essay is 12 noon on Tuesday 2 May.  It should be submitted to the Secretarial Office, as above. A receipt will be issued and should be kept safely.

Coursework essays

Essays should be around 2000 words long and wordprocessed. Since essay-writing is an important skill, we shall discuss this at the start of the course - see also the attached `Notes on essay-writing'.

Essays should be submitted  three weeks after the lecture.   (In cases where topics extend over more than one week, the deadline is three weeks after the topic is finished). This will help you submit your essays regularly throughout the year.

It is a Departmental requirement that:

If you choose Option A, your third essay must be submitted by the last day of the Lent Term, and your fourth essay by the second Friday of Trinity Term.

If you choose Option B, your first essay must be submitted by the last day of Michaelmas Term, and your second essay by the second Friday of Trinity Term.

Office

My office is Darwin H 4.3 (ext. 3679). I am generally available when not teaching but would prefer if you could make an appointment with me, by phone or email.  My email address is cgp.

Communications

An email list will be set up and all information regarding the course will be circulated in this way. So please check your email regularly.

SA523 URBAN SOCIOLOGY

Notification of choice of option

Name:

Degree:

Option choice:

(Please enter A (no extended essay) or B (extended essay))

To be handed in to the Secretarial Office Darwin, Room A3.10 by 12 noon Friday 26 November.

Departmental advice on Essay-writing

What is expected of your essays

Attached to these notes is a grid that will be used in marking each essay that you submit. The grid gives you an indication of the criteria that are taken into account in judging an essay (relevance, understanding, analysis, organisation, expression, etc.) and of the quality that is required for a first class mark, a 2i mark, and so on. The statements in the grid are, of course, very brief and they give you no more than a rough idea of what is required. You are strongly advised to read some of the other, fuller, notes about essay-writing that are contained in this course outline, or which are available from the Departmental Office and from the Rutherford Study Centre.

To help you, the following short notes on the criteria in the grid may be useful.

Relevance Read the essay question carefully and try to understand the particular angle it is asking you to take. Do not try to “re-write” the question in the way that you think it should be phrased or would like it to be phrased. You will not get many marks for an entertaining essay that fails to address the question that is set. Nor is it enough to pick out a key word or phrase in the question and write everything you know about it. Look carefully for the “command  word” in the essay: what, why, how far, compare, describe, and so on. Make sure that your essay is relevant to the “command word”. In writing a relevant essay, it is plainly important to have done the relevant reading. Some of the suggested reading may be more relevant (or less relevant) for the particular essay you have chosen. The appropriate lectures(s) and seminar(s) may help you to choose the most relevant material.

Understanding The more you have read in preparation for the essay, the greater is likely to be your ability to express your understanding of the theme. Essays that demonstrate a wide range of background reading usually secure higher marks. However, it is not merely a matter of how much you have read, but also of how you have understood and used it. Be careful if you find yourself copying out key words and phrases from a published source (even if you give the full and correct reference!) - it may mean that you have not understood the idea sufficiently well to be able to write about it in your own words.

Analysis In writing an essay, you will have to evaluate as well as to summarise and describe what you have read. This is the creative, but difficult, part of writing a good essay, requiring you to use the material you have read in order to answer the question that you are tackling. Often you will be taking material that an author has used in one context and trying to use it in the different context of the particular question you are answering. You need to run a mental check on how you are doing this. Have you understood what the author is saying, and have you used the material in the right way? Have you taken account of inconsistencies in the material, or the contrary views of other authors? Is your argument logical? If you are expressing a personal point of view, are you satisfied that it is consistent with the evidence available to you - or are you just riding a hobby-horse? Don’t be afraid to criticise an author (even an eminent one!) if you feel that s/he has got it wrong.

Organisation  A good essay has a clear structure: it begins with an introduction that explains what the essay is trying to do; it sets out the evidence and arguments in a logical and clear way; and it draws conclusions that are directly relevant to the question. It may be helpful to draw up an essay plan before beginning to write: in that way, you will know how all the bits of the essay are intended to fit together. Using a word processor can be of enormous help: it enables you easily to restructure and re-order the essay as you go along if you find that, for example, you have presented your material in the wrong order. The judicious use of section headings can also help the reader to find his/her way through the argument. Alternatively, don’t be afraid to put “signposting” sentences at key points in the essay (“If, as I have demonstrated, there is no clearly established relationship between A and B, how can we explain ...?).

Expression The ability to write attractively and well is probably only acquired through extensive experience, but the correct use of grammar and syntax can be learned. Is the spelling correct? If in doubt use a dictionary. Is the punctuation correct? Have you used full stops, commas, semi-colons and colons in the right way? Have you used the apostrophe correctly? The apostrophe is used before an “s” if it denotes a contraction (it’s a good idea) or the possessive (a student’s life is ...), but it is not used to denote the plural (students are a jolly bunch ...). Have you used sentences and paragraphs correctly? Have you used the same word several times in one sentence? If so, is there another way of expressing what you want to say? Are your sentences too long? Could you express what you want to say more clearly by using two shorter sentences?

Apparatus The correct and full use of references is an important part of scholarly work (not least to avoid a possible charge of plagiarism - see below). Make sure that you place a reference in the text whenever you quote directly from another source, or when the point you are making has been taken very substantially from another author. Try to develop a consistent way of citing references in the text and stick to it: an easy and convenient method is to cite the author and the date of publication (Smith, 1997), including also the page number if you are quoting a passage verbatim (Smith, 1997, p 463). You can then set out the full references, in alphabetical order, at the end of the essay. A full reference should be just that: full. It should include: the name of the author(s); the title of the book or article; the title, year, volume and page numbers of the journal (in the case of articles); and the publisher and year of publication (in the case of books).

Presentation The easiest way of ensuring a good presentation is to use a word-processor. It’s worth spending some time developing a clear page lay-out template and then sticking to it for all your essays. Please only hand-write your essays if your writing is very clear.

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a serious intellectual offence, and it will dealt with as such. Broadly speaking, plagiarism is an attempt to pass off someone else’s work or ideas as if they were your own. It is therefore cheating. Plagiarism may take several forms, some of which are probably more deliberate than others. The more common forms of plagiarism are:

  • copying some-one else’s essay, in whole or in part, and presenting it as if it were your own work

  • copying passages verbatim from a published book or paper without placing the copied passages in inverted commas and without acknowledging the source

  • copying or paraphrasing passages from a published book or paper with only minor changes to the text, thereby trying to pass it off as your own work

  • failing to give the full and correct references for passages that you have copied from other sources, thus giving the impression that you have read material that in fact you haven’t

  • using other people’s ideas without acknowledging the fact

Where a case of plagiarism is found, the essay will be severely penalised and could result in a mark of zero. To avoid the possibility of this happening, you are strongly advised to ensure that all material that is quoted from another source is place in inverted commas and that a full reference is given for each source (see Apparatus above).

There is further information and advice about plagiarism in the Part II Handbook, which you are advised to read.

ASSESSMENT GRID: SOCIAL & PUBLIC POLICY

Honours classification in written work

 

FIRST

2(I)

2(II)

THIRD

PASS

DIRECTION / RELEVANCE

Very well-directed answer to the question

Essentially relevant and covers whole question

Some lack of focus or incompleteness

Partial answer, only moderately directed to question

Minimal tolerable sense of direction and relevance

KNOWLEDGE / UNDERSTANDING

Evidence of comprehensive knowledge; illuminating perspective on the topic and its context

Sound; evidence of critical reading

Broad awareness but gaps. Evidence of reading.

Superficial; limited evidence of reading

Bare minimum; no evidence of reading

ARGUMENT / ANALYSIS

Independent thought; consistent analysis, awareness of limitations of evidence and analysis

Consistent analysis; sound argument; sensible use of evidence

Limited argument and range of views covered, but defensible analysis

Largely descriptive; Argument and analysis limited and largely rehearsed uncritically from reading

Descriptive, little or no analysis

ORGANIZATION

(Essays should normally include structural introduction)

Structure clearly reflects and enhances argument

Clear, if conventional, structure

Structure dictated by treatment in books, etc read.

Poor organisation

Inadequate, inappropriate structure

EXPRESSION

(Clarity of language)

Clear, unambiguous writing

Good, conventional English

Limited but largely free from serious errors

Errors and ambiguities

Serious lack of clarity

APPARATUS

(Essays should include references and bibliography)

Scholarly, well-organised treatment of references, bibliography, etc

Honest attribution of sources; consistent forms of reference

Some under-referencing

Serious under-referencing

No referencing

PRESENTATION

(Appearance of finished work)

Thoughtful, effective

Conventional

Reasonable

Poor

Inadequate

The weightings for each element within this table may vary between pieces of work. The final mark represents the balance of these elements.
NOTES ON ESSAY-WRITING IN SA515 AND SA523

Essays are a key method of learning. The following notes are aimed at covering the three main aspects of essay-writing: relevance, content and presentation.

1. Relevance  You will need to read relevant articles or chapters, and then prepare an answer which addresses the question. The two obvious problems are: what is relevant reading and how to know whether your answer addresses the essay question.

Relevant reading: the aim of the reading list is to point out the most useful reading in the library on a particular topic. However the reading list is long, and guidance will be given in the seminar groups as to what literature is relevant to what questions.  If in doubt, ask me.

Addressing the question: This is not as easy as it sounds. You need to decide what the question is getting at. Is it an assertion (e.g. "Town planners have no power to shape urban development") which you are being asked to discuss - in which case arguments for and against should be included. Is it a why question (e.g. "Why do local governments undertake local economic policy?") which invites a list-like answer in which the importance of the factors should be indicated. Is it a comparison (e.g. "Compare the individualist and institutionalist approaches to neighbourhood change") in which case you need to show you understand what the two approaches are and then make a systematic comparison.

The lectures and seminars will help you grasp what coverage your answers should have. For example, you will certainly gather that the question about town planning does not expect you to cover town planning through the ages before coming to post-war U.K. planning. However you may want to argue that the answer to a question has changed over the last 50 years e.g. that town planning in the 1980s and 1990s has much less influence than in the 1950s. Or you may want to clarify how you are interpreting a question. If a question asks `What are the obstacles to public participation in planning' you may want to explain what you mean by public participation (and planning). In general being clear about the terms used in the essay question and in your answer is very desirable.

2. Content  After you have read the relevant reading, the question is how to organize your answer. This is a very creative stage of essay-writing because you have got to put order into what you have read, and to do this you need to have understood it. It involves critical thinking and structure.

i.          Critical thinking 

It is inevitable that you will have to evaluate what you have read, rather than give a description or précis without comment. For example if author A says town planners have a lot of influence over urban development while author B says they have little, what to do? If you point out that A & B disagree that is a good step. But a better one is to discuss why they disagree. Are they referring to town planning in different places, or times, or to different types of planning? They may be less contradictory than they first appear. But if they are referring to the same time, place and type of planning why do they disagree? There are many reasons for this and one of the aims of the course is to help bring out these reasons. They include disagreements about evidence: do writers refer to `facts', and if so to which `facts'. What do they consider to be `facts'. (Unfortunately different authors disagree about what the `facts' are!)  We will show that facts are not as `hard' as they seem. Authors may also disagree about theories: for example they may have beliefs about planning which precede any investigation of particular cases. What are these based on? Attachment to a political standpoint? Their own experience? Their authority or position? If authors rely on theories and evidence; what theories and what evidence are involved and in what balance. Theories influence the questions asked, where you look for evidence and what you count as evidence. You need to be on the look out for their influence.

ii.            Structure

As well as critical thinking that gets beyond the surface of what you read, your essay has to show structure. It should start with a statement of what it will contain (the main sections or arguments), go on to the `meat' (or soya) of the essay, and end with a conclusion which pulls together the arguments you have considered and summarizes your answer to the original question. In other words you not only have to answer the question but make the reader aware how you are answering the question. (The reader may be aware of all the literature you have referred to, but the aim is to show that you have understood it and can use it to answer the question.)  For example if you are making a comparison between two authors, it is not sufficient to describe their views one after the other. A comparison means saying in what respects they agree and disagree.

The usual problems you may encounter at this point are:

- "I have read too much". This is not really a problem, but deciding what is relevant and should be included needs careful thought. Being concise and learning to exclude irrelevant material (or at least irrelevant to a 2000 word essay) are real skills which take time to acquire.

- "My essay will be too long". The aim of the essay is not length but relevance, structure and conciseness. So a long essay may mean you have not managed to `control' your material.

- Author order. It is usually not a good idea to order your essay by author. This looks as though you haven't digested what you have read. Usually the essay will be asking you to locate reasons, or criticize arguments, so the essay should be ordered by the reasons or the arguments. For example, in the essay about the influence of planning on urban development, you could write about the views of five authors one after the other. But it would be better to say `Those who believe planning as practised today in the U.K. has little effect belong to two schools: those who believe the market works best and would prefer less planning; and those who believe the market works badly and would prefer more planning. The first school includes Hogg and Bloggs (and then give an example from both). The second school includes Higgs and Biggs . ....' In this way you are giving priority to the argument you are making, rather than to the author.

- "My essay looks like a list". If you have been asked why something happened, it will be impossible to avoid a list of some kind. Don't worry - a list is systematic. But if you can put some order into your list it will look better. For example you could list the reasons in order of importance.

- "I am not sure which author to believe". Whatever you do don't plump for an author because you think he or she is famous, looks friendly, or writes beautifully. In most cases in social science there is no agreed answer to a question. What the course wants you to do is understand what arguments are being made by different writers and on what grounds they are being made (see above). You may want to criticise them all and say: `to answer this question we would need to know X, Y and Z, but we do not'. If well-argued this would be an excellent answer.

Finally writing an essay with a clear structure is not easy. For the essay to have a clear structure you need to have a clear argument. Academics can find it as difficult as students to develop a clear argument without diversions (footnotes often contain diversions!), so don't worry if at the start of the second year you don't feel you've got there.

The reason I emphasise essay-writing skills is that once learned, they will stand you in good stead in whatever you do - even if you forget all of the content of the course!

3. Presentation  By comparison with writing a well-structured essay, presentation skills are easier to develop:

-           If your writing is not very legible please word process your essay.

-           Divide the essay into sections to bring out its structure.

-            Referencing. Give full references in the `Bibliography' at the end of the essay to the sources you have consulted in writing the essay - including journal titles, dates, volumes and page numbers, and book titles, publishers and dates.

-            Quotations. Always give source, and page after the quote e.g. (Bloggs, 1995, p.5) and make sure Bloggs 1995 is in the bibliography!

-           If Bloggs refers to Biggs and you can't get hold of Biggs or are relying on what Bloggs says about Biggs, you should say "Biggs (referred to in Bloggs, 1995) argues that .....".

-           If, after finishing your essay, you read through it and come across authors' names which are not in the bibliography or where you have not said (referred to in ...), please add one or the other.

-           Do not use footnotes for references, and preferably avoid them altogether. In a 2000 word essay they will take up space that can be better used!

-           Finally, the Part II Handbook contains important information about plagiarism (p.9) which you should read.

LECTURE SCHEDULE

Michaelmas Term

Main schools in Urban Sociology

Week 1                                     Human ecology

Week 2                                    Urban ways of life

Week 3                                    Community studies

Week 4                                    The Weberian approach

Week 5                                    The Marxian approach

Week 6                                    The feminist approach

Main themes

Week 7                         The city and globalization

Week 8                        The neighbourhood: local social order

Week 9                        Urban imagery and symbolism

Weeks 10 and Lent week 1                         Residential differentiation and gentrification

Lent Term

Weeks 2 and 3                        Urban Protest

Comparative urbanism

Week 4                        State socialist urbanization

Weeks 5 and 6                        Hungary

Weeks 7 and 8                        China

Week 9                        The transition from state socialism and its effects

Week 10 and Trinity week 1                        The Japanese city

Human ecology (week 1)

This approach was developed in Chicago in the early years of this century.  It inspired studies of socio-spatial patterns and studies of social groups (see next week).

Generally on the Chicago school

A. Carey, Sociology and Public Affairs: the Chicago School, Sage, 1975 (HM 47 U61 C4) Chapter 4.

L. Harvey, The nature of ‘schools’ in the sociology of knowledge: the case of the ‘Chicago School’, Sociological Review, 35, 1987.

D.  Smith, The Chicago School: a liberal critique of capitalism, Macmillan, 1988 (HM 47 U61 C4) Esp chapter 1 and 2.

Human ecology

M.A. Alihan, Social Ecology (1938), Cooper Square, 1964 (HM 22 U61) Good outline and critique.

W.G. Flanagan, Contemporary Urban Sociology, Cambridge U.P., 1993 (HT 156), Chapter 2.

W.H. Form, The place of social structure in the determination of land use, Social Forces, 32, 1954, 317-323.  (Also in M. Stewart, The City, (HT 151).

U.  Hannerz, Exploring the City, Columbia U.P., 1980 (HK 395, Reserve), Chapter 2.

A.H. Hawley, Human Ecology, Ronald, 1950 (HM 51). Systematic but heavy-going.

R.E. Park, E.W. Burgess & R.D. McKenzie, The City (1925), Chicago U.P., 1967 (HT 151), Chapters 1 and 2*.

B.  Robson, Urban Analysis, Cambridge U.P., 1969 (HN 394 S5), Chapter 1.

P.  Saunders, Social Theory and the Urban Question, Hutchinson, 1986, (HT 151), Chapter 2.

M.R. Stein, The Eclipse of Community, Harper, 1960 (HT 123), Chapter 1.

G.A. Theodorson, Studies in Human Ecology, Harper and Row, 1961 (HM 206).  Articles by Burgess, Zorbaugh, Hatt, Quinn (p.  135) and Firey.

Essay title

Outline, and assess the value of, the human ecological approach.

Urbanism as a way of life (week 2)

This approach grew up alongside human ecology and centres on the existence or not of an ‘urban way of life’.

M. Castells, The Urban Question, Arnold, 1977 (HT 151), Chapters 5 and 7.

*H. J. Gans, Urbanism and suburbanism as ways of life: a re-evaluation of definitions in Gans, People and Plans, Penguin, 1972 (HT 123) (Also in S.  Fava (ed.), Urbanism in World Perspective, Cromwell, 1968 (HT 151), P. Kasinitz (ed.), Metropolis, Macmillan, 1995 (HT 151), R.E. Pahl (ed.), Readings in Urban Sociology, Pergamon, 1968 (HT 151).

U. Hannerz, Exploring the City, Columbia U.P., 1980 (HK 395, Reserve), Chapter 3 (pp.  59-76).

J. R. Mellor, Urban Sociology in an Urbanized Society, Routledge, 1977 (HT 151).  Chapter 6.

C. G. Pickvance, Wirth’s theory of urbanism. Reserve photocopy (TS 6945).

P.  Saunders, Social Theory and the Urban Question, Hutchinson, 1986 (HT 151), Chapter 3.

M. Savage and A. Warde, Urban Sociology, Capitalism and Modernity, Macmillan, 1993 (HT 151) Chapter 5.

M. P. Smith, The City and Social Theory, Blackwell, 1980 (HT 151), Chapters 1 (and 3).

*L. Wirth, Urbanism as a way of life, American Journal of Sociology, 44, 1938.  (Also in Fava,, Kasinitz, Hatt & Reiss (Cities and Society).

Essay title

Does it make sense to talk of an ‘urban’ way of life?

Community studies (week 3)

These have a long history and include studies of small towns, suburbs and villages viewed as ‘wholes’, rather than as contexts for more specific processes.

C. Bell and H.  Newby, Community Studies, George Allen and Unwin, 1971 (HM 131). Chapters 2-4.

A.P. Cohen, The Symbolic Construction of Community, Routledge, 1989 (HM 131). Chapter 1.

*G. Crow and G. Allan, Community Life, Harvester, 1994 (HM 131), Chapters 1-5, 9.

J. Eade (ed.) Living the Global City: globalization as local process, Routledge, 1997 (HF 1359), Chapters 2, 3 and 6.

M. Harloe, C.G. Pickvance and J. Urry (eds.), Place, Policy and Politics: do localities matter?, Unwin Hyman, 1990 (HT 169 G7), Chapters 2, 8 and 9.

H. Newby (ed.), The Sociology of Community, Cass, 1974 (HM 131).

Open University, Community, (by H. Newby), 1980 (qHM 52).

J. Platt, Social Research in Bethnal Green, Macmillan, 1971, (HM 22 G71), Chapters 1-3, 5 and 6.

M. Stacey, The myth of community studies, British Journal of Sociology, 20, 1969, 134-147.

M. R. Stein, The Eclipse of Community, Princeton U.P., 1972 (HT 123), Chapters 3, 4, 9 and 12.

G. D. Suttles, The Social Construction of Communities, Chicago U.P., 1972 (HT 151), Chapters 2, 3 and 9.

R. L. Warren, The Community in America, Rand McNally, 1963, (HT 123), Chapters 2, 3, 8, 9 (or in 1978 edition add Chapters 13 and 14).

M. Young and P.  Willmott, Family and Kinship in East London, Penguin, 1962 (HQ 615).

Essay title

What is meant by a ‘community study’?  Are community studies still feasible when most sources of power lie outside them?

The Weberian approach (week 4)

Weber’s The City has been taken as a starting point for studies of powerful groups in cities.

B. Badcock, Unfairly Structured Cities, Blackwell, 1984 (HT 166), Chapter 2.

*B. Elliott and D. McCrone, The City, Macmillan, 1982 (HT 151), Chapters 4-6.

R. Haddon, A minority in a welfare state society, New Atlantis, 2, 1970, 80-133 (per HM 1 N3).

P. Norman, ‘Managerialism: review of recent work’ in Conference on Urban Change and Conflict 1975, CES, 1975 (qHT 151, Reserve).

R. E. Pahl, Whose City (Second edition), Penguin, 1975 (HN 385, Reserve), Chapters 12 and 13.

R. E. Pahl, Readings in Urban Sociology, Pergamon, 1968 (HT 151), pp.  211-232 (by Rex).

J. Rex and R. Moore, Race, Community and Conflict, Oxford U.P., 1967 (HT 2058 B6), Introduction, Chapters 1, 3-6, 11 and 12.

*P. Saunders, Social Theory and the Urban Question (Second edition), 1986 (HT 151), Chapter 1 (pp. 28-38), 4.

Essay title

Describe the strengths and weaknesses of Weberian work in urban sociology.

The Marxist approach (week 5)

Marx’s writings on capitalism have been adapted to understand urban processes.  Different writers focus on the role of capital, of the state, and of class conflict.

K. Bassett and J.R. Short, Housing and Residential Structure, Routledge, 1980 (GM 106, Reserve) Part III.

M. Castells, City, Class and Power, Macmillan, 1978 (HT 151), Chapters 1-3, 5.

B. Elliott and D. McCrone, The City, Macmillan, 1982 (HT 151), Chapter 1.

D.  Harvey, The Urbanization of Capital, Blackwell, 1985 (HT 371), Chapters 1, 3, 5 and 8.

D.  Harvey, The Urban Experience, Blackwell, 1989 (HT 151) Chapters 1, 2 & 4 (N.B. These are the same as Chapters 1, 5 and 8 in The Urbanization of Capital.)

D. Judge et al, Theories of Urban Politics, Sage, 1995 (HT 123, Reserve), Chapter 13.

C. G. Pickvance, Introduction: the distinctiveness of the new urban sociology, Reserve xerox.

C. G. Pickvance, On a materialist critique of urban sociology, Sociological Review, 22, 1974, 203-220.

C. G. Pickvance, The state and collective consumption, Open University, 1982 (D202 Unit 24)(q HT111 Reserve).

C. G. Pickvance, The structuralist critique in urban studies, in M.P. Smith (ed) Cities in Transformation, Sage, 1984 (HT 321).

P. Saunders, Social Theory and the Urban Question (Second edition), Hutchinson, 1986 (HT 151), Chapters 1 (pp.  16-28), 6 and 7.

I. Szelenyi (ed.) Cities in Recession, Sage, 1984 (HT 151), Chapter 10 (by H.Gans).  Assessment of ecological and Marxist approaches.

Essay title

Outline, and assess the contribution of, the Marxist approach in urban sociology.

The feminist approach (week 6)

The role of women as a category in cities, and the effect of cities on women is the central concern of this approach.

V.  Bryson, Feminist Political Theory, Macmillan, 1992 (HQ 1206), Part II.

M. Evans and C. Ungerson, Sexual Divisions: Patterns and processes, Tavistock, 1983, chaps. 9 and 10 (HQ 1597).

R. Fincher and J.M. Jacobs, Cities of Difference, Guilford, 1998 (HT166), Chapters 2, 4 & 8.

*C. H. Greed, Women and Planning, Routledge, 1994 (HT 166).

S. Hanson and G. Pratt, Gender, Work and Space, Routledge, 1995 (HD 6096 W7).

E.J. Harman, Capitalism, patriarchy and the city, in C.V. Baldock and B. Cass (eds), Women, Social Welfare and the State in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1983 (HQ 1823).

D. Hayden, What would a non-sexist city be like, Signs, Spring 1980.

D. Hayden, The grand domestic revolution, MIT Press, 1981 (HQ 1206).

J. Little et al (eds), Women in Cities, Macmillan, 1988 (HT 210).

L. MacDowell, Towards an analysis of the gender division of urban space, Society and Space, 1, 1983, 59-72.

L. MacDowell, Space, place and gender relations, Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 17, 1993, 157-179, 305-318.

R. Madigan, M. Monro and S.J. Smith, Gender and the meaning of home, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 14, 1990, 625-647.

A. Markusen, City spatial structure, women's household work and national urban policy, Signs, Spring 1980, S23-S44.

Matrix, Making Space: women and the man-made environment, Pluto, 1984, (NA 2547).

S. Saegert, Masculine cities and feminine suburbs, Signs, Spring 1980, S92-S111.

G.  Wekerle et al (eds.), New Space for Women, Westview, 1980 (HQ 1154), Parts I and II.

E. Wilson, The Sphinx in the City, Virago, 1991 (HT 151).

Essay title

What do you understand by the feminist approach in urban sociology?  What are its strengths and weaknesses?

The city and globalization (week 7)

We examine how far cities of different kinds are integrated into the global economy and what impact this has on their social and spatial structure.

A. Amin and N.Thrift (eds.) Globalization, Institutions and Regional Development in Europe, Oxford U.P., 1994 (HC 241.9 R6) Chapters 1 and 2

R. B. Cohen, The new international division of labour, multinational corporations and urban hierarchy in M. Dear and A. Scott (eds), Urbanization and Urban Planning in Capitalist Society, Methuen, 1981 (HT151, Reserve)

J. Friedmann and G. Wolff, World city formation: an agenda for research and action, International Journal of Urban and Required Research, 6, 1982, 309-343 (reprinted as Appendix in Knox and Taylor.

P. Knox and P. Taylor (eds) World Cities in a World Economic System, Cambridge U. P., 1995 (HT330) chapters 2, 6, 8, 10* and 17.

C. Hamnett, Social polarisation, economic restructuring and welfare state regimes, Urban Studies 33, 1996, 1407-1430.

B. Jessop, Post-Fordism and the State in A. Amin (ed), Post-Fordism, Blackwell, 1994 (HC78 T4, Reserve).

R. C. Hill and K. Fujita, Osaka's Tokyo problem, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 19, 1995, 181-193.

J. R. Short, et al, The dirty little secret of world cities research: data problems in comparative analysis, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 20, 1996, 697-717.

E. Mingione (ed) Urban Poverty and the Underclass, Blackwell, 1996, chapter 3 (HV 4028)

Essay title

How much can be learned by knowing a city's position in a global urban hierarchy?

The neighbourhood: order and conflict (week 8)

The neighbourhood is an arena in which order and conflict co-exist.  We examine the effect of social homogoneity/heterogeneity, choice and constraint in residential location, design and other features on order and conflict at neighbourhood level.

A. Coleman, Utopia on Trial, Hilary Shipman, 1985 (GM 110.43 Reserve) esp.  Chapters 3-6.

M. Elias and J.L. Scotson, The Established and the Outsiders, Cass, 1965 (HN 385), Chapters 1-3, 6, 9.

C. S. Fischer, Networks and Places, Free Press, 1977 (HT 153), Part II.

C. S. Fischer, To Dwell among Friends, Chicago U.P. 1982 (HT 119) Chapters 1, 2, 5-10, 19.

H. J. Gans, People and Plans, Penguin, 1972 (HT 123 Reserve) Chapters 4, 8 and 9.

A. Hunter, Private, parochial and public social orders: the problem of crime and incivility in urban communities, in P.  Kasinitz (ed.), Metropolis, Macmillan, 1995 (HT 151).

J. Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Penguin, 1962 (GL108), esp.  Chapters 2-4.

N. Jewson and S. MacGregor (eds.) Transforming Cities, Routledge, 1997 (HT 133), Chapter 8.

S. Keller, The Urban Neighbourhood, Random House, 1968 (HT151), Chapters 1 and 2.

E. Krupat, People in Cities, Cambridge U.P., 1985 (HT 151) Chapters 6 and 7.

J. Little et al (ed), Women in cities, Macmillan, 1988, (HT 210) Chapters 5 and 6.

L. H. Lofland, A World of Strangers, Basic, 1973 (HT 151), esp.  Chapters 4, 6, 7.

J. J. Palen & B. London (eds), Gentrification, displacement & neighbourhood revitalization; SUNY Press, 1984 (HT 175U6), Chapter 2 by I. Allen (Also in Urban Affairs Quarterly, 15, 1980, 409-428).

A. Power, Area-based poverty and residential empowerment, Urban Studies, 33, 1996, 1535-1564.

A. Power, Dangerous disorder, riots and violent disturbances in thirteen areas of Britain, 1991-2, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1997 (qHV6485 G7)

E. Reade and R. Tunstall, Residential decay, household movement and class structure, Policy and Politics, 10, 1982, 27-45.

F. Reynolds, The Problem Housing Estate, Gower, 1986 (GM 877.43). Chapters. 5, 7, 11 and 12.

R. Sennett, The Uses of Disorder, Penguin, 1970 (HX 833), esp. Part I.

G. D. Suttles, The Social Order of the Slum, Chicago U.P., 1968 (HV 4046 C4) Chapters 1, 9-10, 12.

G. D. Suttles, The Social Construction of Communities, Chicago U.P., 1972 (HT 151), Chapters 2, 3 and 9.

Essay titles

1.            “Different groups want different things from the neighbourhood”.  Discuss.

2.         What characteristics of neighbourhoods (and their residents) affect the extent of ‘social order’?

Urban imagery and symbolism (week 9)

Images of cities and parts of cities are socially created and have effects on our experience of them, on the attraction of jobs, on planning policy, etc. They are the object of deliberate creation as well as being historically-rooted.

A.  Briggs, Victorian Cities, Penguin, 1968 (HT 133), Chapter 2.

R. Glass, Urban sociology in Britain in R.E. Pahl (ed), Readings in Urban Sociology, Pergamon, 1968 (HT 151).

M. Harloe, C.G. Pickvance and J. Urry (eds.), Place, policy and politics: do localities matter?, Unwin Hyman, 1990 (HT 169 G7), Chapter 8.

G. Kearns and C. Philo (eds.)  Selling Places, Pergamon, 1993 (HT 151), Chapters 5, 6, 8 and 11.

E.  Krupat, People in Cities, Cambridge U.P., 1985, (HT 151), Chapter 4.

P. Lowe et al ‘A civilised retreat? Anti-urbanism, rurality and the making of an Anglo-centric culture’ in P. Healey et al (eds) Managing Cities, Wiley, 1995 (HT 107).

J. May, Globalization and the politics of place - place and identity in an  inner London neighbourhood, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 21, 1996, 194-215.

M. Savage and A. Warde, Urban Sociology, Capitalism and Modernity, Macmillan, 1993, (HT151 Reserve) Chapter 6.

J.  Short, The Urban Order, Blackwell, 1997 (HT 151), Chapters 18 and 19.

A. L. Strauss, The American City: a sourcebook of urban imagery, 1968 (HT 123).

A. L. Strauss, Images of the American City, Free Press, 1961 (HT 123), Chapters 1, 3-5.

G. D. Suttles, The Social Order of the Slum, Chicago University Press, 1968 (HV 4046 C4).

S. Westwood and J. Williams (eds.) Imagining Cities, Routledge, 1997 (HT 151), Chapters 4 and 11.

R.  Williams, The Country and the City, Paladin, 1975 (PD 143).

S.  Zukin, Loft Living, Radius, 1988 (HT 175 U6 N5).

Essay title

If images of place are social constructs, can they be useful in understanding cities?

Gentrification (week 10 and Lent week 1)

We examine explanations of gentrification as a force affecting residential differentiation.

L. Bondi, ‘Gender divisions and gentrification: a critique’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S., 16, 1991, 190-198.

T.  Butler and C.  Hamnett, ‘Gentrification, class and gender’, Society and Space, 12, 1994, 383-512.  (Response to Warde, 1991.)

S. Christopherson, ‘The fortress city: privatized spaces, consumer citizenship’ in A. Amin (ed), Post-Fordism: a reader, Blackwell, 1994 (HC 78.T4 Reserve).

C. Hamnett, Gentrification and residential location theory: a review and an assessment’, Geography and the Urban Environment, 1984, Vol.  6 (per GFI G3).*

C. Hamnett, ‘The blind man and the elephant: the explanation of gentrification’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 16, 1991, 173-189 (and debate in TIBG 17, 1992, 110-119 and 358-362).*

D. Harvey, The Urbanization of Capital, Blackwell, 1985 (HT 371), Chapter 5 (Reprinted as Chapter 4 in Harvey, The Urban Experience, 1989 (HT 151).  Marxist view of residential differentiation.

D.  Ley, The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City, Oxford U.P., 1996 (HT 175 C2), Chapter 5.

I.  Munt, ‘Economic restructuring, culture and gentrification: a case study in Battersea,  London’, Environment and Planning A, 19, 1987, 1175-1197.*

J.J. Palen and B. London (eds.), Gentrification, Displacement and Neighbourhood Revitalisation, 1984, SUNY Press, Albany, (HT 175 U6), Chapters *1, *2, 3 and 4.

D.  Rose, ‘Rethinking gentrification: beyond the uneven development of Marxist urban theory’,  Society and Space, 2, 1984, 47-74.

D.  Rose, ‘A feminist perspective on employment restructuring and gentrification: the case of Montreal’ in Wolch, J.  and Dear, M.  (eds.), The Power of Geography, 1989, Unwin Hyman, (GF 50)(reserve photocopy).

M.  Savage and A.  Warde, Chapter 4.

N.  Smith, ‘Towards a theory of gentrification: a back to the city movement by capital not people’ Journal of American Planners Association, 45, 1979, 538-548.

N.  Smith, The New Urban Frontier, Routledge, 1996 (HT 170), esp.  Chapters 3-5.

N.  Smith and P.  Williams (eds.), Gentrification of the City, Unwin Hyman, 1986, (HT 170, Reserve), Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5*, 9.

J.  Van Weesep and S.  Musterd, Urban Housing for the Better-Off: Gentrification in Europe, Stedelijke Netwerken, 1991, Utrecht (HT 175 E85), esp.  Chapters 3 and 4.

A.  Warde, ‘Gentrification as consumption: issues of class and gender’, Society and Space 8, 1991, 223-232.

P.R. Williams, ‘The role of institutions in the inner London housing market: the case of Islington’,  Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 1, 1976,72-82.

S.  Zukin, Loft Living, Radius, 1988, (HT 175 U6 N5), Chapters 1, 2 (pp 50-7), 3, 6-8.

Essay title

Outline the different approaches to understanding gentrification.  Do they all address the same question?

Lent Term

Urban Protest and Community Action (Weeks 2 and 3)

`Urban' protest groups, their origins and success in changing local government policy.

‘Urban’ bases of deprivation/shared interest

*K.R. Cox and J.J. McCarthy, ‘Neighbourhood activism as a politics of turf: a critical analysis’ in K.R. Cox and R.J. Johnston (eds.),Conflict, Politics and the Urban Scene, Longman, 1982 (HT166, Reserve).

V. Duke and S. Edgell, ‘Public expenditure cuts and consumption sectoral cleavages’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 8, 1984, 177-199.

P. Dunleavy, Urban Political Analysis, Macmillan, 1980.  (JS 3115, Reserve) pp.70-86.  (Alternatively, see his article ‘The urban bases of political alignment’, British Journal of Political Science, 9, 1979, 409-443).

S. Fainstein and N. Fainstein, ‘Economic restructuring and the rise of urban social movements’, Urban Affairs Quarterly, 21, 1985.

D. Harvey, ‘Labour, capital and class struggle around the built environment’, Politics and Society, 6, 1976, pp.266-95.  Also in K.R. Cox, Urbanization and Conflict in Market Societies, Methuen, 1978.  (HT151, Reserve).

*G. Pratt, ‘Class analysis and urban domestic property: a critical re-examination’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 6,1982, 481-501.

J. Rex and R. Moore, Race, Community and Conflict, O.U.P., 1967.(HT2058 B6)

*P. Saunders, Urban Politics, Hutchinson, 1979.  (JS 3111, Reserve), Chapter 3.

P. Saunders, ‘Beyond housing classes: the sociological significance of private property rights and means of consumption’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 8, 1984, 202-225.

P. Saunders, A Nation of Homeowners, Unwin Hyman, 1989.(GM 500.43, Reserve) Chapter 4

From deprivation/shared common interest to forming an organization

P. Bagguley, From Protest to Acquiescence: political movements of the unemployed, Macmillan, 1991 (HD 5767) Chapters 3 & 5.

A. Blowers and P. Leroy, Power politics and environmental inequality, Environmental Politics, 3, 1994, 197-228.

R.A. Cloward & F.F. Piven, Poor People's Movements, Pantheon, 1977 (HD 8076), esp.  Chapter 1.

A. Hirschman, Exit, Voice and Loyalty, Harvard U.P. (HF 5353).

*J.C. Jenkins, ‘Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movements’, Annual Review of Sociology, 9, 1983, 527-53.

J.R. Lambert, B. Blackaby and C. Paris, Neighbourhood politics and housing opportunities’, in Conference on Urban Change and Conflict Proceedings, 1975 (qHT 151 Reserve).

S. Lowe, Urban Social Movements, Macmillan, 1986. (HT151) ch.3.

M. Mayer, Urban restructuring, new forms of exclusion and the role of social movements. Conference paper, 1995, Reserve photocopy. Post-Fordist interpretation.

D. Murphy, The Silent Watchdog: the press in local politics, Constable, 1976, (JS 3225) Chapter 4.

M. Olson, The Logic of Collective Action, Harvard U.P., 1965.  (HM 131).  Introduction, Chapters 1,2, 4-6.  Denies that it is in individual self-interest to join a group to pursue a collective goal.

*C.G. Pickvance, `From "social base" to "social force": some analytic issues in the study of urban conflict', in Harloe, M. (ed.), Captive Cities, 1977.  (HT 151, Reserve).

C.G. Pickvance, Urban Sociology: Critical Essays, Chapter 8.  (Read pp.22-30 of Introduction first).

C.G. Pickvance, Where have urban movements gone?  in D. Sadler and C. Hadjimichalis (ed) Europe at the margins, Wiley, 1995.  (HN 3805 Z9M26).

G. Popplestone, `Collective action among private tenants', British Journal of Social Work, 2, 1972, pp.370-386.

P. Saunders, Urban Politics, Hutchinson, 1979. (JS 3111, Reserve).  Chapter 7.

*P. Saunders, Social Theory and the Urban Question, Hutchinson, 1981. (HT 151).  pp.136-148, 187-199, 268-278.  (Or preferably in the second edition, pp.139-151, 190-204, 289-332.).

(There is also a literature on social movements in general, e.g. peace, wormen's ecological : for material on this see the journal Research on Social Movements, Social Conflict and Change and books by A. Melucci (Nomads of the Present, Hutchinson, 1989), R.J. Dalton & M. Kuechler (Challenging the Political Order, Polity, 1990, D. Rucht (ed). Research on Social Movements : the state of the art in Western Europe and the USA, Westview, 1991, A.D. Morris and C.M. Mueller (ed) Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Yale U.P. 1992 and P. Byrne, Social Movements in Britain, Routledge, 1997 (HN 389).

Factors affecting organizational success/interaction between protest groups and local authorities

Ron Bailey, The Squatters, Penguin, 1972.  (GM 887.43).

*F. Bonnier, `The practices of neighbourhood associations and the process of co-option'.  (Translation from French original in Espaces et Societes, 6-7, 1972) (Reserve photocopy).

M. Castells, The City and the Grassroots, Arnold, 1983.  (HT 151), Part 6.

M. Castells, (Chapter 6), J. Olives, (Chapter 7), and C. Pickvance (Chapter 8) in Pickvance, Urban Sociology.  (Read pp.22-30 of Introduction first).

K. Cox, Urbanization and Conflict in Market Societies, Methuen, 1978. (HT 151 Reserve). Chapter 4 (Cox).

*J. Dearlove, The Politics of Policy in Local Government, Cambridge U.P., London, 1973.  (JS3711 K36). Chapter 8.

*M. Lipsky, Protest in City Politics, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1970.  (JS1232 P7). Chapter 4.

S. Lowe, Urban Social Movements, Macmillan, 1986, (HT151) chaps. 4-5.  Studies of tenants and ratepayers movements in Sheffield and Barnsley.

D. Muchnik, Urban Renewal in Liverpool, (L.S.E. Occasional Papers in Social Administration No. 33), Bell, London, 1970, pp. 76-79.  (HT175 G7 L4).

D. Murphy, The Silent Watchdog: the press in local politics, Constable, 1976, (JS 3225) Chapter 3.

C.G. Pickvance, `The rise and fall of urban movements and the role of comparative analysis' Society and Space, 3, 1985, pp.31-53.  (Also comment by Castells, pp.55-61 and reply by CGP in Vol.4, 1986, pp.221-231.).

Essay titles

1.         What is the significance for urban protest of sharing a territorial location, housing market position or `consumption sector' location?

2.         What factors affect the success of protest action?

State Socialist Urbanization: Introduction (Week 4)

Background: State socialist economies and societies

M. Bleaney, Do Socialist Economies Work? Blackwell, 1988 (HC 335.3) Ch. 3 (6 & 7)

M. Ellman, Socialist Planning (Second edition), Cambridge U.P., 1989 (HC 72) Ch. 2 (and 3)

J.F. Hough, The Soviet Prefects, Harvard U.P. 1969, chaps. 5, 9-12. (JN 6598)

P. Kende & Z. Strimska (eds) Equality & Inequality in Eastern Europe, Berg, 1987 (HN 380 E7) Ch. 1 & 2

*J. Kornai, The Socialist System, Oxford U.P., 1992 (HX 73) Ch. 3, 7, 10, 13, 19 (Also 8, 11, 12)

V. Nee & D. Stark (eds) Remaking the Economic Institutions of Socialism, Stanford U.P. 1989 (HC 427.6 Reserve) ch. 1.

State socialist urbanization

G.D. Andrusz, M. Harloe & I. Szelenyi (eds) Cities after Socialism, Blackwell, 1996 (HT 119), chaps. 3*, 4 and 10*.

A.H. Dawson, Warsaw - an example of city structure in free-market and planned socialist environments, Tijdschrift voor Econ. en Soc. Geografie, 62, 1971, 104-113

D. Forbes & N. Thrift (eds) The Socialist Third World : urban development & territorial planning, Blackwell, 1987 (HC 59.7), ch. 1

F.E.I. Hamilton, `Aspects of spatial behaviour in planned economies', Papers of the Regional Science Association, 25, 1970, pp.83-105.

B.A. Misztal and B. Misztal, `Uncontrolled processes in the socialist city:  a Polish case study', Politics and Society, 15, 1986-7, pp.145-154 (A similar but less developed article by the same authors is in W. van Vliet (ed.), Housing Markets and Policies under Fiscal Austerity, Greenwood Press, 1987. (GM110.03)

*P. Murray and I. Szelenyi, ‘The city in the transition to socialism’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 8, 1984, pp.90-107.

N. Nekrasov, The Territorial Organization of the Soviet Economy, Progress Publishers, 1974, pp.9-28 and chapter 5. (HC 340 R6)

G. Ofer, ‘Economizing on urbanization in socialist countries’, in A.A. Brown and E. Neuberger (eds.), Internal Migration, Academic Press, 1977. (HB 1951)

E.S. Shomina, Enterprises and the urban environment in the USSR, International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 16, 1992, 222-233.

D.M. Smith, Geography and Social Justice, Blackwell, 1994 (HM216) Chapter 7.

Essay title

Describe and account for the features of state socialist urbanization.

State socialist urbanization: Hungary (weeks 5 and 6)

G.D. Andrusz et al, chap. 8 (sections on housing movements).

*J.  Bodnar, ‘He that hath to him shall be given’: housing privatization in Budapest after state socialism, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 20, 1996, 616-636.

A. Bozoki, A. Korosenyi & G. Schöpflin, Post-Communist Transition : emerging pluralism in Hungary, Pinter 1992.  (JN 2067)

D. Clapham et al (eds.) Housing Privatization in Eastern Europe, Greenwood, 1996 (GM 437.425), Chapters 2, 4 and 10.

M.J. Douglas, A Change of System: housing system transformation and neighbourhood change in Budapest, Utrecht, 1997 (GM110.71 H9, Reserve).

G. Enyedi & V. Szirmai, Budapest, Belhaven, 1992 (HT 145 H9) ch. 6 & 9

R.A. French and F.E.I. Hamilton (eds.), The Socialist City, Wiley, 1979, (HT145 R8), Chapters 1, 8, 9 and 16.

P. Galasi and Gy. Sziraczki (eds.), Labour Market and Second Economy in Hungary, Campus, 1985, (HD 5772.5) Chapters on labour markets, second economy.

P.  Györi and A.  Matern, Housing movements in Budapest in K.  Láng-Pickvance et al (eds.), Environmental and Housing Movements: grassroots experience in Hungary, Russia and Estonia, Avebury, 1997 (JA 75.8).

*J. Hegedus and I. Tosics, `Housing classes and housing policy:  some changes in the Budapest housing market, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 7, 1983, pp.467-494.

C.M. Hann, (ed), Market Economy and Civil Society in Hungary, Cass, 1990 (HN420.5) (Chapter by Kovacs)

J. Kenedi, Do it yourself: Hungary’s hidden economy, Pluto, 1981 (GM 901.71 H9). Entertaining and anarchical.

*G. Konrad and I. Szelenyi, `Social conflicts of under urbanization', in M. Harloe (ed.), Captive Cities, Wiley, 1977 (HT151 Reserve).  (Also in A.A. Brown, J.A. Licari and E. Neuberger, Urban and Social Economics in Market and Planned Economies, Praeger, 1974 (HT 321) with Comment by P.J.D. Wiles).

Z. Kovacs, A city at the crossroads: social and economic transformation in Budapest, Urban Studies, 31, 1994, 1081-1096.

Local Government reorganization and housing policy in Budapest - a roundtable discussion, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16, 1992, 477-488

S. Lowe and I. Tosics, `The social use of market processes in British and Hungarian housing policies', Housing Studies, 3, 1988, pp.159-171.

C.G. Pickvance, `Employers, labour markets and redistribution under state socialism : an interpretation of housing policy in Hungary 1960-1983', Sociology, 22, 1988, pp.193-214.

*C.G. Pickvance, Housing privatization and housing protest in the transition from state socialism : a comparative study of Budapest and Moscow. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18, 1994, 433-450.

C.G. Pickvance, `Inequality and conflict in the post-socialist city: some analytical issues concerning the transition from state socialism in O.  Kalltorp et al (eds.), Cities in Transformation - Transformation in Cities, Avebury, 1997 (HT 151).

R.J. Struyk (ed.)  Economic Restructuring of the former Soviet bloc: the case of housing, Avebury, 1996 (GM 942.5), Chapter 2.

I. Szelenyi, `Housing system and social structure', Sociological Review Monograph, No. 17, 1972.

I. Szelenyi, `Social inequalities in state socialist redistributive economies', International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 1, 1978, pp. 63-87.

*I. Szelenyi, Urban Inequalities Under State Socialism, Oxford U.P., 1983 (HT147 H9 Reserve) especially Chapter 2.

I. Szelenyi, `Housing inequalities and occupational segregation in state socialist cities', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 11, 1987, pp.1-8, plus articles by Hegedus (pp.79-97) and Tosics (pp.61-78) in same issue.  The debate is taken further in Vol. 12 No. 1 March 1988.

I. Szelenyi and R. Manchin, `Social policy and state socialism'.  In G. Esping-Anderson, L. Rainwater and M. Rein (eds.), Stagnation and Renewal in Social Policy, White Plains: Sharpe, 1987 (HV31).

I. Szelenyi, Eastern Europe in an epoch of transition : toward a socialist mixed economy in V. Nee and D. Stark (eds) Remaking the economic institutions of state socialism Stanford U.P. 1989 (HC427.6 Reserve)

B. Turner, J. Hegedus & I. Tosics, The Reform of Housing in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, Routledge, 1992.  (GM 110.425) Chaps 11, 12 & 24.

Essay Title

Describe the main features of urban housing policy in Hungary since the 1960s.  How useful is the concept of state socialism in accounting for them?

State socialist urbanization: China (weeks 7 and 8)

1. General background

D. Dwyer (ed), China: the next decades, Longman, 1994 (HC 427.6) ch. 2*

V. Nee & D. Stark (eds) Remaking the Economic Institutions of Socialism : China and E. Europe Stanford U.P. 1989 (HC427.6) Contains several articles on Chinese economic reforms.

A. Oberschall, The great transition: China, Hungary and sociology: exit socialism into the market, American Journal of Sociology, 101, 4, 1996, 1028-1042.

D.L. Wank, Commodifying Communism, Cambridge UP 1999 (HC428 X4)

G. White, Riding the Tiger: the politics of economic reform in post-Mao China, Macmillan, 1993 (HC 427.6).

2. Urbanization and urban policy

C.P. Cell, `The urban-rural contradiction in the Maoist era', Comparative Urban Research, 7, 3, 1980, pp.48-69.

K.W. Chan, Urbanization policies in the post-Mao era, unpublished paper. Reserve photocopy.

*K.W. Chan, Economic growth strategy and urbanization policies in China 1949-82 International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16, 1992, 275-305.

*K.W. Chan, Cities with Invisible Walls, OUP, HK, 1994 D. Wank (HT398C6 Reserve).(N.B. This book includes the above two papers as chapters.)

K.W. Chan, Post-Mao China: a two-class urban society in the making, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 20, 1996, 134-150,

N.A. Chance, China's Urban Villages, Harcourt Brace 1991 (HN 740 P3), ch. 9 on changes in 1980s.

D.S. Davis et al, Urban Spaces in Contemporary China, Cambridge U.P., 1995 (HT 147 C6), Chapters 2-5, 15.

J. Gugler, The Urbanization of the Third World, OUP, 1988, (HT 371) ch. 7 (M. Belcher).

R.N.W. Hodder, China's industry - horizontal linkages in Shanghai, Transactions of The Inst. of Br. Geographers, 15, 1990, 487-503.

R.J. Kirkby, Urbanization in China, Croom Helm, 1985, chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 6. (HT398 C6)

J.W. Lewis (ed.), The City in Communist China, Stanford U.P., 1971 (HT 147 C6) chapters by J. Gardner, pp.235-286, and J.W. Salaff, pp. 289-323.

E. Mingione, Social Conflict and the City, Blackwell, 1981, (HT321) ch.4.

E. Mingione, `Territorial problems in socialist China', in J. Abu-Lughod and R. Hay (eds.), Third World Urbanization, Maaroufa, 1977. (HT371)

*R. Murphey, The Fading of the Maoist Vision: city and country in China's development, Methuen, 1980, (HT147 C6) chapters 2-6 (esp. 3-4).

M.K. Whyte and W.L. Parish (eds.), Urban Life in Contemporary China, Chicago U.P., 1983 (HT 147 C6), chapter 2, pp.76-85.

P. Worsley, Inside China, Allen Lane, 1975 (HN 733), chapters 4 (communes) and 5 (cities).

F. Wu, Urban processes in the face of China's transition to a socialist market economy, Government and Policy, 13, 1995, 159-177.

3. Housing

D.J. Dwyer, Urban housing and planning in China, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 11, 1986, 479-489.

J. Gugler, The Urbanization of the Third World, OUP, 1988, (HT 371) ch. 15.(On urban control system and its weaknesses.)

R. Kojima, Urbanization and Urban Problems in China, Institute of Developing Economies, Tokyo, 1987 (HT 398 C6), chapters 1-3, 7.

*J. Logan and Y. Bian, Inequalities in access and community resources in a Chinese city, Social Forces, 72, 1993, 555-576.  Excellent.

*J. Logan, Y. Bian and F. Bian, Housing inequality in urban China in the 1990s.  International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 1999, 7-25

D.J. Solinger, China's transients and the state: a form of civil society, Politics and Society, 21, 1993, 91-122.

D.J. Solinger, China's urban transients in the transition from socialism and the collapse of the communist `urban public goods regime', Comparative Politics, 27, 1995, 127-146.

Y.P. Wang and A. Murie, The process of commercialization of urban housing in China, Urban Studies, 33, 1996, 971-989.

Y.P. Wang and A. Murie, Housing Policy and Practice in China, Macmillan, 1999 (on order)

L.T. White, Careers in Shanghai, California UP, 1978 (HN740 S4), chapter 4 (section on housing).

F.  Wu, Changes in the structure of public housing provision in urban China, Urban Studies, 33, 1996, 1601-1627. Excellent on role of work units.

*A.G. Yeh and F.  Wu, The new land development process and urban development in Chinese cities, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 20, 1996, 330-353. Excellent on land market.

*M.  Zhou and J.  Logan, Market transition and the commodification of housing in urban China, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 20, 1996, 400-421. Excellent on housing.

Essay titles

1.         In what ways is Chinese urbanization distinctive from that of other socialist countries and of capitalist countries?

2.         Chinese `de-urbanization' was an unintended result of policies taken without regard for their spatial consequences.  Discuss.

3.         ‘The work unit is the key to understanding Chinese urban development in the post 1978 period’. Discuss.

The transition from state socialism and its effects (week 9)

General

Y. Bian and J.R. Logan, Market transition and the persistence of power: the changing stratification system of urban China, American Sociological Review, 61, 1996, 739-758.

T.L. Karl and P.C. Schmitter, Modes of transition in Latin America, Southern and Eastern Europe, International Social Science Journal, 128, 1991, 269-284.

J.M. Kovacs (ed.)  Transition to Capitalism, Transaction, 1994 (HN 380.7), Chapters 5-7.

V. Nee, The theory of market transition: from redistribution to markets in state socialism, American Sociological Review, 54, 1989, 663-681.

C.G. Pickvance, Democratisation and the decline of social movements: the effects of regime change on collective action in Eastern Europe, Southern Europe and Latin America, Sociology, 33, 1999, 353-372

I. Szelenyi and E. Kostello, The market transition debate: towards a synthesis?, American Journal of Sociology, 101, 1996, 1082-1096 (and Walder article in same issue).

Urban

Hungary

G.D. Andrusz et al, Chapter 8 (sections on housing movements).

J.  Bodnar, ‘He that hath to him shall be given’: housing privatization in Budapest after state socialism, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 20, 1996, 616-636.

M.J. Douglas, A Change of System: housing system transformation and neighbourhood change in Budapest, Utrecht, 1997. (HC 340.3)

P. Györi and A. Matern, Housing movements in Budapest in K. Láng-Pickvance et al (eds.), Environmental and Housing Movements: grassroots experience in Hungary, Russia and Estonia, Avebury, 1997. (JA 75.8)

C.G. Pickvance, Housing privatization and housing protest in the transition from state socialism : a comparative study of Budapest and Moscow. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18, 1994, 433-450.

C.G. Pickvance, `Inequality and conflict in the post-socialist city: some analytical issues concerning the transition from state socialism in O.  Kalltorp et al (eds.), Cities in Transformation - Transformation in Cities, Avebury, 1997 (HT 151).

R.J. Struyk (ed.)  Economic Restructuring of the former Soviet bloc: the case of housing, Avebury, 1996 (GM 942.5), Chapter 2.

China

Y. Bian and J. Logan, Market transition and the persistence of power: the changing stratification system in urban China, American Sociological Review, 61, 1996, 739-758.

J.  Logan, Y. Bian and F. Bian, Housing inequality in urban China in the 1990s.  International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 1999, 7-25

A. Oberschall, The great transition: China, Hungary and sociology exit socialism into the market, American Journal of Sociology, 101, 4, 1996, 1028-1042.

Y.P.Wang and A. Murie, The process of commercialization of urban housing in China, Urban Studies, 33, 1996, 971-989.

F. Wu, Urban processes in the face of China's transition to a socialist market economy, Government and Policy, 13, 1995, 159-177.

F.  Wu, Changes in the structure of public housing provision in urban China, Urban Studies, 33, 1996, 1601-1627.

A.G. Yeh and F.  Wu, The new land development process and urban development in Chinese cities, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 20, 1996, 330-353.

M.  Zhou and J.  Logan, Market transition of the commodification of housing in urban China, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 20, 1996, 400-421.

Essay title

What is the impact of the transition from state socialism on urban stratification?

Japanese urbanization (week 10 and Trinity week 1)

1. General Background

R. Dore, Taking Japan Seriously, Athlone, 1987 (HC 462.9)

B. Eccleston, State and society in post-war Japan, Blackwell, 1989 (HC 462.9).

A. Gould, Capitalist Welfare Systems, Longman, 1993 (HV 413 Reserve). Part One (Japan).

M. Morishima, Why has Japan succeeded, Cambridge U.P., 1982 (HC 462). Ch. 5.

R. Mouer and Y. Sugimoto, Images of Japanese Society, Kegan Paul, 1986 (HN723.5)

P. Tasker, Inside Japan, Penguin, 1987 (HN 723.5).  Less academic.

2. Urbanization

J. Broadbent, Environmental Politics in Japan, Cambridge UP, 1998.

M. Douglass, The transnationalization of urbanization in Japan, International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 12, 1988, 425-454.

K. Fujita, The technopolis: high technology and regional development in Japan, International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 12, 1988, 566-593.

A.K. Glasmeier, The Japanese technopolis programme - high-tech development strategy or industrial policy in disguise, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 12, 1988, 268-283.

K. Hayakawa & Y. Hirayama, The impact of the minkatsu policy on Japanese housing and land use, Society and Space, 9, 1991, 151-164.

*M. Hebbert and N. Nakai, How Tokyo Grows, LSE, 1988 (HT 147 J 3 Reserve) chaps 1-4, 6.

M. Hebbert, Urban sprawl and urban planning in Japan, Town Planning Review, 57, 1986, 141-158.

M. Hebbert and N. Nakai, Deregulation of Japanese planning in the Nakasone era, Town Planning Review, 59, 1988, 383-395.  (Same as Chapter 6 in their book.)

E. Oizumi, Property finance in Japan: expansion and collapse of the bubble economy, Environment and Planning A, 26, 1994, 199-213.

P. Shapira et al (ed) Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan, Liverpool U.P., 1994 (HT 169 J3). Chapters 3, 6 & 7.

S.R. Reed Japanese prefectures and policy-making, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1986 (JS 7373), Chapter on housing.

M. Muramatsu, Local Power in the Japanese State, University of California, 1997, (JS 7373)

3. Housing and city life

J. Agnew et al (eds), The City in Cultural Context, Allen & Unwin, 1984 (HT 119), chap. 8.

R. Cybriwsky, Tokyo, Belhaven, 1991 (HT 147 J3) Chaps 4, (6), 7.

D. Donnison & S. Hoshina, Formulating the Japanese housing problem, Housing Studies, 3, 1988, 190-5.

K. Fujita, A world city and flexible specialization: restructuring of the Tokyo metropolis, International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 15, 1991, 269-284.

K. Fujita & R. Hill (eds) Japanese Cities in the World Economy, Temple U.P., 1993 (HC 462.9) Chaps 3, 4 & 12.

K. Hayakama, Japan in W. Van Vliet (ed), International Handbook of Housing Policies and Practices, Greenwood, 1990 (GM110, Reserve).

K. Hayakama & Y. Hirayama, above.

T. Machimura, The urban restructuring process in Tokyo in the 1980s: transforming Tokyo into a world city, International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 16, 1992, 114-128.

Y. Nishiyama, Housing issues and urban movement in Japan. Conference paper, 1991. Reserve photocopy.

S.R. Reed Japanese prefectures and policy-making, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1986 (JS 7373), Chapter on local government.

W. Van Vliet and Y. Hirayama, Housing conditions and affordability in Japan, Housing Studies, 9, 1994, 351-367.

J.W. White and F.  Munger (eds.)  Social Change and Community Politics in Urban Japan, University of N.  Carolina, 1976 (HT 147 J3).

Essay Title

1.         To what extent is urban development planned in Japan?  Explain the reasons for your answer.

2.         Is there a housing problem in Japan, and if so, for whom and why?