Professor Peter Dreier TuTh 10-11:30 a.m.
Spring 2000 IPAC Seminar Room

URBAN & ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY (UEP) 301

URBAN POLICY AND POLITICS

What This Course is About

This is a seminar/discussion course about America's urban crisis -- and what we can do about it. It is also a course in policy analysis -- evaluating different public policies in terms of their effectiveness. It is also a course in American politics -- examining how political conflicts over ideas and interests influences policy regarding cities.

Following the civil disorder in Los Angeles in 1992, many politicians, candidates, journalists, business leaders, and philanthropists expressed growing concern about the "urban crisis."   They held hearings, issued reports, wrote articles, and funded research about what caused it and what to do about it.   Are other cities, like L.A., ticking time bombs, waiting to explode?  Are the problems facing American cities -- poverty, homelessness, high levels of infant mortality, pollution, etc. -- solvable?  

There's been a great deal of research and writing about urban problems in the past few years. Most of the readings for this course draw on up-to-date research and thinking. But many of the urban problems we face today have been around for some time. People have been thinking about urban problems for many years. We can learn a great deal from the urban thinkers of the past as well.

The major questions addressed in this seminar include the following:

1.  As the U.S. has changed, so has the shape, function, and number of cities and metropolitan areas. How have these changes come about?  How and why did the suburbs grow, especially after World War 2?  What's the difference between cities and suburbs? Are they growing more alike or more apart?  How has the physical shape of metropolitan areas -- its architecture, roads, residential areas, open spaces, factories, stores, offices, neighborhoods, downtowns -- changed? What impact have these changes had on how people live their lives?

2. Are there certain "urban" characteristics -- economic, social, political, psychological -- common to all cities and metropolitan areas? What is meant by the term "urban crisis?" Does it affect all urban areas in the same way?  How has the distribution of wealth and power in the larger society influenced the economic, social, and physical conditions of cities and metro areas?  What are the causes of urban poverty and racial segregation?

3. Should there be a national urban policy designed to help rebuild cities? Or should there simply be policies to help individuals wherever they happen to live? What approaches have been tried?  What works?  What has failed?  Why?  How do we assess the various proposals to deal with our urban problems? We'll look at such issues as poverty and employment, housing and homelessness, public health, transportation and environment, racial segregation and discrimination, and other topics. What are the current policy debates regarding these and other issues?

4.  What role do cities play in our national political life? (This is often called "the politics of urban policy"). How are cities governed? (This is often called "urban politics"). Who runs our cities?  Business? Local politicians? Neighborhood groups?  Developers?  Unions?  No one? What are the different ways that cities and metro areas are governed?  What difference does it make?

5.   Do cities in other countries have the same problems? Why or why not? Even if we find some common characteristics, we also know that L.A. has a quality about it that differs from Boston; that Paris is hardly the same as Nairobi; that Beijing is quite different from Mexico City; that San Diego is very different from San Francisco. How do we account for these differences?  What can we learn from these differences to help address the problems facing American cities?

Course Requirements

Your grade will be based on the following:

1. One-third your grade will be based on your class participation. This is a seminar course. Its success depends on class discussions. Students are expected to do the readings on time and participate in class discussions. When doing the reading, think about the issues you want to discuss in class. Most of the readings are short articles from newspapers and magazines with little or no technical jargon. Some readings are more difficult and will take more time to digest.  I encourage students to debate and disagree -- but to do so based on information and evidence as well as your own values.

2. One-third of your grade will be based on written assignments. You will be assigned a number of short (3-4 page) papers, based primarily on the readings. These include book reviews, policy analyses, newspaper editorials, and others. All papers should be typed, double-spaced.  Proofread your papers. Check for correct spelling, punctuation, grammar. Put your names on the first page. Cite your sources in the essay (Author: Page Number) and in the bibliography (Author, Title, Publisher, Date). Examples or statistics should be used to illustrate your major points, not as a substitute for critical analysis. A few assignments will require you to work in groups.

3. One-third of your grade will be based on a policy memo. Each student will pick an issue facing Los Angeles and write a policy memo to a candidate running for Mayor of Los Angeles in the April 2001 election. The memo should address (a) the key trends and problems, (b) proposed policy solutions that are within the city's authority to address, and (c) the political obstacles to getting these policies approved. The memo should be 10-15 pages long. It should not read like an academic term paper. Each section should have its major items written as short bullet points. Unlike a typical policy memo, however, you should have a bibliography page at the end. We will discuss the logistics of doing this paper in class.

Each student should give me a short memo on Tues., Feb. 8 identifying the issue you've selected and why you have done so. Each student should give me a rough outline of your policy memo on Tuesday, March 21. Each student should give me a first draft of your memo on Tuesday, April 25. The final paper is due on Tuesday, May 2.

Readings

Xeroxed Readings

You should also purchase a xeroxed collection of readings for this course. (These are identified with an asterisk on the reading list). Purchase it immediately so you can do the readings for the first week. You will only be charged the cost of copying them -- $62. They are available from Wendy Clifford at IPAC.

Required Books to Purchase

You should purchase the following paperback books, available at the college bookstore:

o Judd & Swanstrom, City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy (second edition)
o Nivola, Laws of the Landscape
o Wilson, When Work Disappears
o Massey & Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation & the Making of the Underclass
o Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States

Housing Policy Debate and Several Reports

I will distribute free copies of four issues of the journal, Housing Policy Debate, published by the Federal National Mortgage Association (called Fannie Mae). We will read selected articles from this journal. I will also distribute free copies several reports -- a Ford Foundation report on the activities of community development corporations, two HUD reports on the State of the Cities, a United Way report on social trends in the Los Angeles area, and a report on regional development in Los Angeles.

Films

I want to show several films about topics we'll discuss in the course. But I do not want to use class time to do so. We will try to find convenient times for all students in the course to watch and discuss these films together. These films include:

"The Killing Floor" (about the 1919 Chicago race riots)
"Hull House: The House that Jane Built" (about the first wave of urban social reform)
"The Times of Harvey Milk" (about the rise of gay politics in San Francisco)
"City of Hope" (a John Sayles film about urban politics)
"Do The Right Thing" (Spike Lee's film about the Brooklyn ghetto)
"Holding Ground" (a documentary about community organizing in Boston)
"Taken for a Ride" (a documentary about America's love affair with the automobile)

Web Sites

I hope that all of you will become familiar with the World Wide Web as a way of connecting to the larger worlds of public policy. There are thousands of web sites that deal with social issues and thousands of advocacy organizations and political networks that have their own web sites. Here are several key sites with which you should be familiar. I encourage you to bookmark them so you can find them easily.

1. Electronic Policy Network (http://epn.org) -- This site is a link with dozens of organizations and publications that deal with public policy issues. It includes organizations such as the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, Economic Policy Institute, Public/Private Ventures, The American Prospect magazine, Center for Law and Social Policy, and others. It includes links to issues such as economics and politics, welfare and families, education, civic participation, and health policy.

2. Community Organizing and Development (http://comm-org.utoledo.edu) -- This site is a link with hundreds of groups involved in urban community development. If you want to find out what groups are working on different urban issues, this is the site. It also has many articles and reports on urban community development and community organizing.

3. The Center for Neighborhood Technology (http://www.cnt.org), the National Housing Institute (www.nhi.org), the Metropolitan Initiative (http://www.cnt.org/mi/index.html), Planners Network (http://www.picced.org/resources/pn/pn.html), Civic Practices Network (http://www.cpn.org/index.html), and Citistates (http://www.citistates.com) all focus on innovative research and programs that strengthen urban neighborhoods and metropolitan areas. Each site has links to many other resources about particular issues, programs, cities, and metropolitan areas.

4. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development has its own web site with information about its programs, policies, data bases, and many links. HUD's Office of Policy Development & Research (http://www.huduser.org) has its own site with a great deal of information about housing and urban problems, studies and publications, and available data. You reach can the HUD library, with many reports and publications about cities and housing problems, at this site.

Newspapers

Students are expected to read at least one daily newspaper -- the Los Angeles Times, the New York Times, or the Wall Street Journal -- on a regular basis. You should draw on these newspapers in class discussions. When an article appears in one of these papers that relates to the topics in the course, bring it up in class.

Library Journals

During this semester, you should become familiar with the major scholarly journals that focus on urban problems and policies. When you are in the Library, peruse these publications to see what scholars and practitioners are saying. The major journals include Urban Affairs Quarterly, the Journal of the American Planning Association, and the Journal of Urban Affairs. Other relevant journals include Social Work, Social Policy, Challenge, and American Demographics. There are many policy journals that include articles on cities. There are also many magazines -- such as The Neighborhood Works, Governing, and Planning -- targeted to urban practitioners and policymakers. The best sources for following national politics are the Washington Post Weekly and National Journal.

URBAN POLICY AND POLITICS
TOPICS AND READINGS

(Readings preceded by an *asterik are in the xerox readers. Books are available in the Bookstore. Reports and journals will be distributed in class).

I. INTRODUCTION

SOCIAL VALUES, POLITICAL CHOICES, AND PUBLIC POLICY (Jan. 20)

"Looking for Housing" exercise

WHAT MAKES CITIES LIVEABLE?

The Variety of Urban Conditions (Jan. 25)

*"Toronto and Detroit," Economist, May 19, 1990.

*Wolfe, "Canada's Liveable Cities" (Social Policy, Summer 1992)

*Pierce, "A Universal Church of Immigrants" (Boston Globe, July 4, 1993)

*Nieves, "Homeless Defy Cities Drives to Move Them," (NY Times, December 7, 1999)

*Firestone, "Suburban Comforts Thwart Atlanta's Plans to Limit Sprawl" (NY Times, Nov. 21, 1999)

*Egan, "Urban Sprawl Strains Western States" (NY Times, Dec. 29, 1996)

*Dillon, "Mexico City Spawns Suburbs, Changing Face of Countryside" (NY Times, Dec. 18, 1999)

*Kilborn, "Another Notch in the Decline of Main Street" (NY Times, November 4, 1993)

*Judson, "New Bridgeport Mayor, Same Old Quagmire" (NY Times, Feb. 2, 1992)

*Greenhouse, "Why Paris Works" (NY Times Magazine, July 19, 1992)

*Sigenbladh, "Stockholm" (Scientific American, September 1965)

*Simons, "Amsterdam Plans Wide Limit on Cars" (NY Times, Jan. 28, 1993)

Comparing Cities Over Time and Across Cultures (Jan. 27)

The State of the Cities: 1998 (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) -- skim.

*Mohl, "The Industrial City" (Environment, June 1976)

*Morgenthau and McCormick, "Are Cities Obsolete?" (Newsweek, Sept. 9, 1991)

*Milgram, "The Experience of Living in Cities" (Science, March 13, 1970)

*Dogan and Kasarda, "Comparing Giant Cities" (The Metropolis Era: Mega-Cities, 1988)

*Abrams, "The Uses of Land in Cities" (Scientific American, September l965)

*Hall, "How Foreign Cities Cope" (The World & I, June 1991)

II. FOUR MAJOR FACTORS SHAPING URBAN LIFE

1. PUBLIC POLICY (Feb. 1)

Nivola, Laws of the Landscape: How Policies Shape Cities in Europe and America (entire book)

2. INEQUALITY AND POVERTY

Dimensions of Inequality (Feb. 3)

A Tale of Two Cities: Promise and Peril in Los Angeles (United Way of Greater LA, 1999)

*Bernstein, "Inequality: How the Gap Between Rich and Poor Hurts the Economy" (Business Week, August 15, 1994)

*Moberg, "The Great Divide" (In These Times, June 12, 1995)

*Smeeding and Gottschalk, "Cross-National Income Inequality: How Great Is It and What Can We Learn From It?" (Focus, Summer/Fall 1998)

*International Comparisons of Child Poverty (Table)

*Johnston, "Gap Between Rich and Poor Found Substantially Wider" (NY Times, Sept. 5, 1999)

*Byrne, "Executive Pay: The Party Ain't' Over Yet" (Business Week, April 26, 1993)

*Uchitelle, "Rising Incomes Lift 1.1 Million Out of Poverty" (NY Times, Oct. 1, 1999)

*Uchitelle, "Devising New Math to Define Poverty" (NY Times, Oct. 18, 1999)

*Zeller, "Third World Wages Won't Rebuild L.A." (LA Times, 1993)

*Bailey, "Minimum Wage Isn't a Living in San Francisco" (LA Times, Oct. 19, 1999)

*Bernstein, "Poverty Rate is Persisting in New York Despite Boom" (NY Times, Oct. 7, 1999)

*Brinsley, "Hitting the Wall" (LA Business Journal, Dec. 20-26, 1999)

*Marquis, "1 in 3 in L.A. Lacks Health Coverage, Study Says" (LA Times, Dec. 18, 1998)

*Noble, "Study Shows a Big Asthma Risk for Children in Poor Neighborhoods" (NY Times, July 27, 1999)

*DeParle, "In Booming Economy, Poor Still Struggle to Pay the Rent" (NY Times, June 16, 1998)

*Cleeland, "Rents Are Rising in L.A.'s Blue-Collar Neighborhoods" (LA Times, Dec. 24, 1998)

The Spatial Concentration of Wealth and Poverty (Feb. 8)

Abramson, Tobin, and VanderGoot, "The Changing Geography of Metropolitan Opportunity: The Segregation of the Poor in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1970 to 1990," (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 6, Issue 1, 1995) -- skim the text, look closely at tables and figure out the basic points

Kasarda, "Inner-City Concentrated Poverty and Neighborhood Distress: 1970-1990" (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 1993)

*Roberts, "Gap Between Rich and Poor in New York Grows Wider" (NY Times, Dec. 26, 1994)

*Reich, "Secession of the Successful" (NY Times Magazine, Jan. 20, 1991)

*Traub, "What No School Can Do" (NY Times Magazine, January 17, 2000)

*Bluestone and Harrison, "Boomtown and Bust-town" (The Deindustrialization of America, 1982)

*Johnson, Jones, Farrell, and Oliver, "The Los Angeles Rebellion: A Retrospective View" (Economic Development Quarterly, November 1992)

*Sterngold, "5 Years After Los Angeles Riots, Inner City Still Cries Out for Jobs" (NY Times, April 28, 1997)

*Hamilton, "325 Dreams Shattered by Plant Closing" (LA Times, December 19, 1994)

*Weiser, "When the Plant Closes" (Washington Post, January 10, 1994)

The Causes and Consequences of Inequality and Poverty (Feb. 10)

Wilson, When Work Disappears (entire book)

3. RACISM AND SEGREGATION

Racial Prejudice and Institutional Racism (Feb. 15)

*Brownstein and Simon, "Hospitality Turns into Hostility" (LA Times, Nov. 14, 1993)

*Bogert, "White Ghetto?" (Newsweek, May 30, 1994)

*Shipler, "The White Niggers of Newark" (Harpers, August 1972)

*Nazario, "Hunger, High Food Costs Found in Inner-City Area" (LA Times, June 11, 1993)

*Turque, "Where the Food Isn't" (Newsweek, February 24, 1992)

*Squires, "The Indelible Color Line" (American Prospect, Jan./Feb. 1999)

*Chang, "Mortgage Denial Rate for Blacks in '93 Was Double the Level for Whites, Asians" (Wall Street Journal, July 27, 1994)

*Kilborn, "Bias Worsens for Minorities Buying Homes" (NY Times, Sept. 16, 1999)

*Dedman, "Study Discerns Disadvantage for Blacks in Home Mortgages" (NY Times, Nov. 14, 1999)

*Hudson, "Going for Broke" (Washington Post, Jan. 10, 1993)

*"Pain in South Central's Heart: Languishing in Riot Recovery" (LA Times, Dec. 29, 1994)

*Pan, "Surveys Point to Racial Bias by Landlord" (LA Times, Aug. 22, 1993)

*Silverstein, "Blatant Use of Redlining by Insurer Charged" (LA Times, July 9, 1993)

Turner, "Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets" (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 3, Issue 2, 1992

Finkel and Kennedy, "Racial/Ethnic Differences in Utilization of Section 8 Existing Rental Vouchers and Certificates" (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 3, Issue 2, 1992, pp. 463-467 only)

The Creation of the Ghetto (Feb. 17)

Massey and Denton, American Apartheid (entire book)

Is Residential Racial Integration Desirable or Possible? (Feb. 22)

*Espiritu, "Immigration and the Peopling of Los Angeles" (from Riposa and Dersch, eds., City of Angels, 1992)

*Mitchell, "Negro y Moreno In the Hood: Black-Latino Relations in Los Angeles" (from Riposa and Dersch, eds., City of Angels, 1992)

*Patterson, "The Paradox of Integration" (New Republic, November 6, 1995)

*Thernstrom and Thernstrom, "We Have Overcome: The Good News About Race Relations" (New Republic, Oct. 13, 1997)

*Glazer, "A Tale of Two Cities" (New Republic, August 2, 1993)

*Funderburg, "Loving Thy Neighborhood" (The Nation, Dec. 14, 1998)

*Massey and Fischer, "Where We Live, In Black and White" (The Nation, Dec. 14, 1998) 

*Ramos, "Latino Middle Class Growing in Suburbia" (LA Times, Nov. 30, 1997)

*Wilkerson, "One City's 30-Year Crusade for Integration" (NY Times, Dec. 30, 1991)

Nyden, Maly and Lukehart, "The Emergence of Stable Racially and Ethnically Diverse Urban Communities: Case Study of Nine U.S. Cities" (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 8, Issue 2, 1997)

Turner, "Introduction: Achieving a New Urban Diversity: What Have We Learned" (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1997)

4. SUBURBANIZATION AND METROPOLITAN FRAGMENTATION

The Making of Suburbia (Feb. 24)

Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier (entire book)

*Table 2-2: "U.S. Population Living in Metro Areas and in Their Central Cities and Suburbs, 1900-1990

The Social and Environmental Costs of Sprawl and Fragmentation (Feb. 29)

*"Flee the City" (Cartoon)

*Katz and Bradley, "Divided We Sprawl" (Atlantic, December 1999)

*Chawkins, "Homes Sprouting, Farms Dying" (LA Times, February 7, 1999)

*Sanchez, "LA County's Growth Spurt Pushes North" (LA Times, Nov. 23, 1999)

*Cart, "Rapidly Growing Phoenix Finds Dust Unsettling" (LA Times, Sept. 7, 1999)

*Fulton and Shifley, "Operation Desert Sprawl" (Governing, August 1999)

*Arax, "Putting the Brakes on Growth" (LA Times, Oct. 6, 1999)

*Pedersen, Smith and Adler, "Sprawling..." (Newsweek, July 19, 1999)

*Downs, "Urban Realities: Some Controversial Aspects of the Atlanta Region's Future" (Brookings Review, Summer 1994)

*Easterbrook, "The Suburban Myth: The Case for Sprawl" (New Republic, March 15, 1999)

*Kelley, "As Suburbs Change, They Still Satisfy" (LA Times, Oct. 19, 1999)

*Lowe, "Out of the Car, Into the Future" (World Watch, November/December 1990)

*Selvin, "The View From the European Bus" (LA Times, Aug. 15, 1999)

*Templin, "Caution: School Zone is a Bumper-to-Bumper Jam" (Wall Street Journal, Nov. 22, 1999)

*Gross, "Getting There the Hard Way, Every Day" (LA Times, July 16, 1995)

*Mason, "The Buses Don't Stop Here Anymore" (American Prospect, March/April 1998)

The Economic Costs of Sprawl and Fragmentation (March 2)

The State of Our Cities: 1999 (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) -- skim

Downs, "The Challenge of Our Declining Big Cities" (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 8, Issue 2, 1997)

*Minerbrook, "Why a City Alone Cannot Save Itself" (U.S. News & World Report, Nov. 9,       1992)

*Lockwood and Leinberger, "Los Angeles Comes of Age" (Atlantic, January 1988)

*Fulton, "Welcome to Sales Tax Canyon" (from The Reluctant Metropolis: The Politics of Urban Growth in Los Angeles, 1997)

*Curtiss and Watson, "Desperate Cities Court Developers" (LA Times, Jan. 16, 1993)

*Stewart, "Burbank May Woo Company with $250,000 Incentive" (LA Times, Dec. 9, 1993)

*"San Marino: The Affluent Grapple with Low-Income Housing" (LA Times, June 14, 1993)

*Tempest, "In Marin County Plenty, a Poverty of Service Workers" (LA Times, Oct. 25, 1999)

*Davis, "The Suburban Nightmare" (LA Times, October 23, 1994)

*Glastris, "A Tale of Two Suburbias" (U.S. News & World Report, Nov. 9, 1992)

*McCormick and McKillop, "The Other Suburbia" (Newsweek, June 26, 1989)  

*DeWitt, "Older Suburbs Struggle..." (NY Times, Feb. 26, 1995)

III. GOVERNMENT POLICY CHOICES TO ADDRESS URBAN PROBLEMS

THE POLITICS OF NATIONAL URBAN POLICY

How Federal Policy Shapes Cities and Metropolitan Areas (March 7)

Judd and Swanstrom, City Politics (Chapters 5-10)

Dreier, "The Roads Not Taken" (manuscript)

*Wright, "Public Housing for the Worthy Poor" (from Building the Dream: A Social History of Housing in America, 1981)

*Caraley, "Washington Abandons the City" (Political Science Quarterly, 1992)

*Dreier and Atlas, "Housing Policy's Moment of Truth" (American Prospect, Summer 1995)

*Egan, "The Freeway, Its Cost, and 2 Cities' Destinies" (NY Times, July 14, 1999)

The Influence of Cities in National Politics (March 9)

*Paget, "Can Cities Escape Political Isolation?" (The American Prospect, Jan/Feb 1998

*Schneider, "The Suburban Century Begins" (Atlantic, July 1992)

*Weir, "In the Shadows: Central Cities' Loss of Power in State Politics" (Brookings Review, Spring 1995)

*Stout, "Republicans Remain Hostile to Proposal for Census Sampling" (NY Times, May 12, 1997)

*Germond and Witcover, "Mayors Find Their Clout Has Shrunk" (National Journal, June 26, 1993)

*Tolchin, "Mayors Press Clinton on Promise to Rebuild Nation" (NY Times, Jan. 25, 1993)

*Brownstein, "Assault on Clinton's Urban Agenda..." (LA Times, July 31, 1995)

*Stanfield, "Splitsville" (National Journal, May 3, 1997)

*Kriz, "The Politics of Sprawl" (National Journal, Feb. 6, 1999)

PLACE-ORIENTED POLICIES

Urban Renewal Strategies: Rebuilding Downtowns (March 21)

Judd and Swanstrom, City Politics (Chapter 12)

*Frieden, "The Downtown Jobs Puzzle" (Public Interest, Fall 1989)

*Hines, "Housing, Baseball, and Creeping Socialism: The Battle of Chavez Ravine, Los Angeles" (Journal of Urban History, February 1982)

*Davis, "Fortress LA" (from City of Quartz)

*Tabak, "Wild About Convention Centers" (Atlantic Monthly, April 1994)

*Applebome, "An Olympic Renewal? Atlanta's Big Question" (NY Times, October 9, 1994)

*Hayden, "A New Spin: `Rebuild LA' From the Top" (LA Times, Jan. 5, 1999)

*Rivera, "Staples Center's Displaced Have New Homes and New Worries" (LA Times, Oct. 9, 1999)

*Newton and Simers, "NFL Talks at Impasse Over Use of Public Funds" (LA Times, Aug. 3, 1999)

*Peirce, "Sports Blackmail" (syndicated column, Jan. 26, 1997)

*Bennet, "Mere Hint of Jobs Draws Crowd in Detroit" (NY Times, Nov. 12, 1993)

*Schwartz and Barrett, "Can You Top This?" (Newsweek, Feb. 17, 1992)

*Guskind, "Games Cities Play" (National Journal, March 18, 1989)

*Schoenberger "Bringing the Life Back to City's Heart" (LA Times, Dec. 14, 1993)

*Lueck, "Giuliani Plans Inducements to Help Lower Manhattan" (NY Times, Dec. 16, 1994)

Community Development Strategies: Bringing Business to the Ghetto (March 23)

*Goozner, "The Porter Prescription" (American Prospect, May/June 1998)

*RLA (Rebuild LA), "Executive Summary: Progress Report" (May 1995)

*Fulton and Newman, "The Strange Career of Enterprise Zones" (Governing, March 1994)

*Kasinitz and Rosenberg, "Why Enterprise Zones Will Not Work" (City Journal, Autumn 1993)  *Besser, "Gentrifying the Ghetto" (Progressive, January 1979)

*Newfield, "Redline Fever" (Village Voice, 1978)

*Wayne, "New Hope in Inner Cities: Banks Offering Mortgages" (NY Times, March 14, 1992)

*Oppel, "Many Banks Making Money on Lending in Poor Areas" (NY Times, Oct. 22, 1999)

*Aubry, "In the Heart of the City" (LA Times, June 9, 1994)

*Pasternack, "Chicago's Shorebank Earns Interest as Model for Rebirth" (LA Times, Feb 22, 1993)

*White, "Ralphs to Build 4 Supermarkets in Poorer Areas" (LA Times, June 11, 1993)

Community Development Strategies: Strengthening Neighborhoods (March 28)

Peirce and Steinbach, Corrective Capitalism: The Rise of America's Community Development Corporations (report)

*Flanigan, "Affordable Housing's Challenge" (LA Times, Nov. 24, 1999)

*Martin, "A Haven for Vendors" (LA Times, Nov. 22, 1999)

*Katz, "Give Communities a Fighting Chance" (Brookings Review, Fall 1997)

*Butterfield, "Study Links Violence Rate to Cohesion of Community" (NY Times, Aug. 17, 1997)

*Kretzman, "Building Communities From the Inside Out" (Shelterforce, Sept./Oct. 1995)

*Cnaan, "Our Hidden Safety Net: Social and Community Work by Urban American Religious Congregations" (Brookings Review, Spring 1999)

*Walljasper, "When Activists Win: The Renaissance of Dudley Street" (The Nation, March 3, 1997)

*Husock, "We Don't Need Subsidized Housing" (City Journal, Winter 1997)

*Venkatesh, "An Invisible Community: Inside Chicago's Public Housing" (American Prospect, Sept./Oct. 1997)

*Atlas and Dreier, "From Projects to Communities" (American Prospect, 1992)

*Stanfield, "City Slickers" (National Journal, July 19, 1997)

*Tobar, "Housing Laws No Cure for Slums' Ills" (LA Times, July 20, 1997)

*Fears, "Angry Tenants Protest Lack of Enforcement of Slum Laws" (LA Times, March 19, 1999)

*Renwick, "Fed-Up Tenants Take Over" (LA Times, August 15, 1994)

*Feldman, "Harvest of Hope" (LA Times, August 19, 1993)

*Sharfstein, "Gangbusters: Enjoining the Boys in the 'Hood" (American Prospect, May/June 1997)

*Peirce, "Community Policing That Works" (National Journal, Oct. 12, 1996)

*Martin, "City Seeks to Put Mini-Parks in Urban Pockets" (LA Times, Feb. 8, 1999)

SOCIAL WELFARE AND HUMAN CAPITAL POLICIES

Mobility Strategies: Escaping Inner City Neighborhoods (March 30)

Hughes, "A Mobility Strategy for Improving Opportunity" (Housing Policy Debate, 6, 1, 1995)

*Stanfield, "The Reverse Commute" (National Journal, Nov. 23, 1996)

*Wartzman, "New Bus Lines Link the Inner-City Poor with Jobs in Suburbia" (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 24, 1993)

*"Who Rides the Bus?" (LA Times, October 1994)

*Purdum, "The Subway to Nowhere, No Time Soon" (NY Times, August 28, 1997)

"Gridlock" (LA Weekly, March 20, 1998)

*DeParle, "An Underground Railroad From Projects to Suburbs" (NY Times, December 1, 1993)

Rosenbaum, "Changing the Geography of Opportunity By Expanding Residential Choice" (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 231-269)

*Dreier and Moberg, "Moving From the 'Hood: The Mixed Success of Integrating Suburbia" (The American Prospect, Winter 1996)

*Rockwell, "The Ghost of Gautreaux" (National Review, March 7, 1994)

*Waldrom, "Parading Politicians Hear Critics of Housing Program" (Baltimore Sun, September 12, 1994)

*Mariano, "Hill Panel Halts Plan to Move Poor Families" (Washington Post, Sept. 3, 1994)

*Diesenhouse, "A Suburb Welcomes Subsidy Housing," (NY Times, May 1, 1994)

*Goetz, Lam and Heitlinger, "There Goes the Neighborhood? Subsidized Housing in Urban Neighborhoods," CURA Reporter, April 1996.

Welfare and Job Training Strategies (April 4)

*Ibrahim, "To French, Solidarity Outweighs Balanced Budget" (NY Times, Dec. 20, 1995)

*Smeeding, "Why the U.S. Anti-Poverty System Doesn't Work Very Well" (Challenge, January/February 1992)

*"Historical Trends in AFDC Enrollments and Average Payments, 1970-1996" (table)

*"Need Standard and Maximum AFDC/TANF and Food Stamp Benefits, One-Parent Family of Three Persons, January 1997" (table)

*Burtless, "Paychecks or Welfare Checks?" (Brookings Review, Fall 1994)

*"Jobs, Skills Most Pressing Needs for Cities" (USA Today, May 5, 1992)

*Feldman, "Ready, Willing, Unable" (LA Times, November 2, 1993)

*Rothstein, "Employers, Not Schools, Fail Black Youth" (LA Times, April 18, 1993)

*Kilborn, "Inner City Jobs Program Throws Young a Lifeline" (NY Times, June 8, 1992)

*Karr, "Jobs Corps, Long Considered a Success, Sparks Political Tug-of-War Over Costs" (Wall Street Journal, June 1, 1992)

*Goldman, "A Hidden Advantage for Some Job Seekers" (LA Times, Nov. 28, 1997)

*Stanfield, "Just Connect" (National Journal, May 31, 1997)

*Nazario, "USDA Tries to Serve Up Food Stamps to the Hungry" (LA Times, Nov. 22, 1994)

*Sancton, "How to Get America Off the Dole" (Time, May 25, 1992)

*Pear, "Welfare Debate Will Re-Examine Core Assumptions" (NY Times, Jan. 2, 1995)

*Newman, "What Inner-City Jobs for Welfare Moms?" (NY Times, May 20, 1995)

*Rivera, "Too Few Jobs May Imperil Welfare Reform Plan" (LA Times, May 20, 1998)

*Jencks and Swingle, "Without a Net: Whom the New Welfare Law Helps and Hurts " (American Prospect, Jan. 3, 2000)

REGIONALISM: CAN CITIES AND SUBURBS WORK TOGETHER?

Three Types of Regionalism (April 6)

Cisneros, Regionalism: The New Geography of Opportunity (HUD pamphlet)

Pastor, Dreier, Grigsby and Lopez-Garza, Growing Together: Linking Regional and Community Development in a Chancing Economy (pamphlet)

*Ehrenhalt, "The Underclass and the Suburban Solution" (Governing, July 1993)

*Orfield, "Metropolitics: Coalitions for Regional Reform" (Brookings Review, Winter 1997)

*Smothers, "City [Memphis] Seeks to Grow By Disappearing" (NY Times, Oct. 18, 1993)

*Rabinovitz, "Hard-Line Approach or Means for Survival?" (NY Times, March 25, 1996)

*"Two Views of the Commuter's Curse: Pataki (`Isn't It Obvious') and Fuchs (`The City Already Pays More than Its Fair Share')" (NY Times, May 22, 1998)

*"Handling Growth as a Region" (LA Times, March 19, 1998)

*Cone, "Southland Smog Levels Are Lowest in 4 Decades" (LA Times, October 21, 1995)

"Smart Growth" and the Regulation of Sprawl (April 11)

*Purdum, "Suburban Sprawl Takes Its Place on the Political Landscape" (NY Times, February 6, 1999)

*Gurwitt, "The Quest for Common Ground" (Governing, June 1998)

*Beyond Sprawl: New Patterns of Growth to Fit the New California (Bank of America report)

*Ehrenhalt, "The Great Wall of Portland" (Governing, May 1997)

*Gurwitt, "The State vs. Sprawl" (Governing, January 1999)

*Ehrenhalt, "The Czar of Gridlock" (Governing, May 1999)

*Staley, "Caution: The Crusade Against Sprawl will Drive Up the Cost of Housing" (Commonwealth, Summer 1999)

*Wilkie, "Limiting Sprawl Will Make Towns and Cities More Livable" (Commonwealth, Summer 1999)

MACRO-ECONOMIC, PUBLIC WORKS, AND LABOR MARKET POLICIES

When Work Reappears: Can We Have Full Employment at Good Wages? (April 13)

*Taub, "What If Anyone Had a Job?" (Shelterforce, Sept./Oct. 1996)

*Schwartz, "The Hidden Side of the Clinton Economy" (Atlantic, October 1998)

*Uchitelle, "Jobless Rate Drops to 4.1% As Wages Rise By 1c an Hour" (NY Times, Nov. 6, 1999)

*Heilbroner, "Lifting the Silent Depression" (New York Review of Books, October 24, 1991)

*"Real Value of the Minimum Wage, 1960-1997" (chart and table)

*Risen, "Lifting Workers Out of Poverty Proves Difficult" (LA Times, Sept. 3, 1993)

*Mencimer, "Take a Hike: Minimum Wage & Welfare Reform" (New Republic, May 23, 1994)

*Boxer, "Increase the National Minimum Wage..." (LA Times, Sept. 16, 1999)

*Thompson, "...But One Size Doesn't Fit All Workers" (LA Times, Sept. 16, 1999)

*Risen, "Credit for Working Poor... " (LA Times, Aug. 10, 1993)

*Dreier, "LA Workers Miss a Tax Break" (LA Times, Jan. 34, 1999)

Engberg, "Employment Policy and Urban Economic Development" (Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1996)

All Jobs Aren't Created Equal (April 18)

*Dreier and Rothstein, "Seismic Stimulus: The California Quake's Creative Destruction" (American Prospect, Summer 1994)

*Anderson & Dreier, "How the Pentagon Redlines America's Cities" (PN, May 25, 1993)

*Moberg, "Conversion Inexperience" (In These Times, December 26, 1994)

*Miller, "The American Infrastructure" (Industry Week, May 21, 1990)  

*Murray, "New Deal's WPA and CCC Enjoy Renewed Vogue" (Wall St. Journal, June 1, 1992)

*Moberg, "Late to the Station" (In These Times, June 14, 1993)

*Wildavsky, "Pigging Out" (National Journal, April 19, 1997)

IV. GOVERNING CITIES: URBAN POLITICAL REGIMES

URBAN POWER STRUCTURES (April 20)

Judd and Swanstrom, City Politics (Chapters 1, 11, 13 and 14)

*Swanstrom, "The Politics of Default" (from The Crisis of Growth Politics)

*Dreier, "The Vault Comes Out of the Closet" (Boston Business Journal, Oct. 10, 1983)

*Neubeck and Ratcliff, "Urban Democracy and the Power of Corporate Capital" (from Scott Cummings, ed., Business Elites and Urban Development, 1988).

*Johnson, "Corporate Elite A Fading Force Over Hartford" (NY Times, Sept. 7, 1992)

*Gurwitt, "Nobody in Charge" (Governing, September 1997)

*Newton, "LA's Inner Circle in Mostly Rich, Enormously Powerful" (LA Times, Nov. 28, 1999)

*Newton, "Would-Be LA Mayors Do the Math for 2001" (LA Times, Aug. 23, 1999)

CONSERVATIVE POLICY REGIMES (April 25)

*Finnigan, "Philadelphia Turnaround May Offers Lessons for L.A." (LA Times, July 15, 1993)

*Davis, "The New Boss" (New Republic, Nov. 1, 1993)

*Lee, "One of Their Own: Business Mostly Happy with Riordan Win" (LA Times, June 10, 1993)

*Kotkin, "The Outsider Connection" (LA Times, May 29, 1994)

*Smith, "The Best Intentions: Why Rebuild LA Didn't" (LA Weekly, April 27, 1997)

*Sims, "Corporate Vows to Aid Poor Produce Little in LA" (NY Times, April 19, 1993)

*Shryer and Lacey, "Riordan Studies Privatization in Indianapolis" (LA Times, June 22, 1993)

*Grunwald, "The Myth of the Supermayor" (American Prospect, Sept/Oct. 1998)

*Clairborne, "From Champion to Chief Critic of the Homeless" (Washington Post, Dec. 9, 1997)

*Mitchell, "Giuliani Administration Seeking Sharper Cuts in Health and Welfare Programs for the Poor" (NY Times, Dec. 16, 1994)

*Finder, "New Yorkers Feel Squeezed by Cuts in City's Budget" (NY Times, Nov. 3, 1995)

*Ridley-Thomas/Poole, "Privatization of City Services" (Metro Investment Report, Dec. 1994)

*Rainey and Lacey, "Riordan's Budget Spares only LAPD" (LA Times, Sept. 16, 1993)

*Baker, "How Many Will Die in County Cutbacks?" (LA Times, July 16, 1993)

*Lopez and Hernandez, "Safety Net Stretched to the Limit" (LA Times, May 5, 1993)

*Lopez, "Fewer Fire Inspections Conducted in Inner City" (LA Times, October 8, 1993)

*Newton, "Recovery Does Little to Help L.A. Homeless" (LA Times, May 19, 1997)

*Cone, "Wilson, Riordan Criticize EPA's Delay on Smog Rules" (LA Times, Jan. 14, 1995)

*Cone, "U.S. Unveils Scaled-Back Clean-Air Plan" (LA Times, Feb. 15, 1995)

*Flanagan, "Sic Transit Gloria" (LA Times, February 22, 1995)

*Cone, "Economy Found Undamaged by L.A. Smog Rules" (LA Times, April 3, 1995)

LIBERAL POLICY REGIMES (April 27)

*"Black & Hispanic Mayors on Cities..." (chart)

*Peterson, "Introduction" (from Peterson, ed., Big City Politics, Governance, and Fiscal Constraints, 1994)

*Nelson, "Black Mayoral Leadership: A 20-Year Perspective" (National Political Science Review, 1990)

*Kolker, "Dallas Mayor Gets Credit for Dispersing City's Cloud of Hate" (Los Angeles Times, April 13, 1999)

*"Atlanta's Mayor Defies Threat to End Affirmative Action" (NY Times, July 16, 1999)

*Lemann, "Race, Reform and Urban Voters" (NY Times, Nov. 4, 1993)

*Jackson and Preston, "Race and Ethnicity in Los Angeles Politics" (from Peterson, ed., Big City Politics, Governance, and Fiscal Constraints, 1994)

*Rodriquez and Rodriquez, "Where Are the Latino Voices?" (LA Times, April 14, 1993)

*Munoz, "Mexican Americans and the Promise of Democracy: San Antonio Mayoral Elections" (from Peterson, ed., Big-City Politics, Governance, and Fiscal Constraints, 1994)

PROGRESSIVE POLICY REGIMES (May 2)

*Meyerson, "Why Liberalism Fled the City...And How It Might Come Back" (American Prospect, March/April 1998)

*Pollin, "Living Wage, Live Action" (The Nation, Nov. 23, 1998)

*Merl, "Living Wage Plan Faces First Test in Council" (LA Times, March 18, 1997)

*Cleeland, "Lives Get a Little Better on a Living Wage" (LA Times, Feb. 7, 1999)

*Uchitelle, "Minimum Wages: City by City" (NY Times, Nov. 19, 1999)

*Rohrlich, "Union's Fight with Hotel Reverberates Across LA" (LA Times, Dec. 5, 1997)

*Hong, "Riding Momentum" (LA Times, Dec. 31, 1996)                                    

*Dreier and Pitcoff, "I'm a Tenant and I Vote: New Yorkers Find Victory in Rent Struggle" (Shelterforce, July/August 1997)

*Callahan, "Ballot Blocks: What Gets the Poor to the Polls? (American Prospect, July/August 1998)

*Glazer, "The Powers To Be" (City Limits, October 1989)

*Mier and Moe, "Decentralized Development: From Theory to Practice" (from Harold Washington and the Neighborhoods, 1991)

*Wimpey, "The Housing Agenda that Led to Victory" (Shelterforce, March/April 1992)

*Dreier and Keating, "The Limits of Localism: Progressive Housing Policies in Boston" (Urban Affairs Quarterly, December 1990)

*Nichols, "Success in Santa Fe" (Shelterforce, March/April 1996)